Perspektiewe aangaande die problematiek van werksverskaffing aan tersiêr-gekwalifiseerde persone met gestremdhede in Suid Afrika

Bester, Magdalena Petronella Cecelia (2007-12)

Thesis (MA) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study is not unique. It serves as recent and focused research to confirm existing and probably well established· tendencies regarding the employment of persons with disabilities. South Africa is a country with many opportunities and is on the forefront with progressive and liberal legislation. The Constitution of the country is one of the many examples of such legislation. Initial observations were that rapid changes took place since the first free national democratic elections in 1994. The new dispensation aimed to improve the inequities of the past. Two of the disadvantaged groups namely blacks and women gained vast improvements in the workplace. The third group namely persons with disabilities was left behind, not withstanding the Employment Equity Act (no. 55 of 1998) (EEA). It was significant that eight years after the EEA and other positive legislation and codes of practice with the same objective were published very little has changed in the working environment for people with disabilities. The cries for help from this group can no longer be ignored and has become the main thrust for this study. The said legislation is not properly enforced and therefore achieve poor results. The research done consists of two studies: A. a Literature study and B. a Quantitative study. The literature study includes the following: .I Applicable South African Legislation, user's codes and codes of practices . .I The global picture - Comparison of the impact of similar legislation regarding employment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Sweden, Japan and India. The impact of reasonable provision on employment legislation and practices in South Africa as well as obstacles negatively effecting the job-hunter with a disability. The literature showed that the implications of legislation intended to improve the situation of persons with disabilities seems to be a challenge for employers in other countries as well. The quantitative study entailed an investigation of the employment situation of 11 companies in the Western Cape. The primary objective of the study was to determine the attitudes of the companies in respect of the employment of persons with disabilities with special reference to those holding tertiary qualifications. A further aim was to determine the effectiveness of the EEA in respect to the employment of persons with disabilities. The information was gathered by a random distribution of questionnaires. Except for a minority of companies the questionnaires were well received and produced the expected outcome. The results supported the hypothesis that no significant difference in employment ratios of persons with disabilities were detected, eight years after the EEA and other positive legislation were published. There was, however, positive feedback regarding notions to improve the situation of the employment of this ignored group, from most companies. The reality is that there seems to be an oversupply of able tertiary qualified people. This means that tertiary qualified people with disabilities can expect to still be at the back of the queue - exactly as it was in the past. The obligation to give the necessary attention and assistance to persons with disabilities is entrenched in the Constitution and included in legislation. The real challenge for companies is, however, to align their social responsibilities with their corporate character and value system in order to provide equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis is nie uniek van aard nie. Dit dien egter as onlangse en gefokusde navorsing wat bestaande en klaarblyklik gevestigde tendense met die indiensneming van persone met gestremdhede bevestig. Suid-Afrika is 'n land met baie geleenthede en is op die voorpunt in die wereld wat progressiewe en liberale wetgewing betref. Die land se Grondwet is maar net een voorbeeld van sodanige wetgewing. Die aanvanklike waarneming was dat veranderinge na die land se eerste vrye, nasionale demokratiese verkiesing in 1994 vinnig geskied. Een van die doelwitte van die veranderinge wat plaasgevind het, was om ongelykhede van die verlede reg te stel. Twee van die aangewese groepe, naamlik swart mense en vroue, het ongeewenaarde voordele begin geniet in die werksomgewing. Die derde aangewese groep, naamlik persone met gestremdhede het agtergebly; die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming, (no.SS van 1998) (WGI) ten spyt. Dit was opvallend dat ag jaar nadat die WGI, ander skynbare positiewe wetgewing en gedragskodes die lig gesien het, min indien enigiets verander het vir persone met gestremdhede in die werksomgewing. Dit is belangrik omdat die noodkrete van hierdie derde groep eenvoudig nie langer ge'ignoreer kan word nie. Wetgewing beteken nie regtig veel as dit nie afgedwing word nie en dit was die beweegrede vir hierdie studie. Die navorsing wat gedoen is, bestaan uit twee studies: A. Literatuurstudie en B. Kwantitatiewe studie. Die literatuurstudie het die volgende behels: ~ Toepaslike Suid-Afrikaanse Wetgewing en Gebruiks- of Bedryfskodes ~ Die Globale prentjie - Vergelyking van die impak van ekwivalente wetgewing op gelyke indiensneming in Amerika, Brittanje, Swede, Japan en Indie. Die impak van redelike voorsiening ten opsigte van werksverskaffingswetgewing en praktyke in Suid-Afrika, asook hindernisse wat die werksoeker met 'n gestremdheid in die gesig staar. Die literatuur toon dat die implikasies van hierdie positiewe wetgewing, wat veronderstel is om persone met gestremdhede van hulp te wees, skynbaar wereldwyd vir werkgewers 'n uitdaging is. Die kwantitatiewe studie het bestaan uit 'n ondersoek by 11 ondernemings in die WesKaap. Die primere doelwit van die ondersoek was om die houding van ondernemings teenoor persone met gestremdhede, en meer spesifiek die met tersiere kwalifikasies, te bepaal. 'n Verdere doel was oak om die effektiwiteit van die WGI ag jaar na dit geproklameer is, ten opsigte van persone met gestremdhede, vas te stel. Die inligting is versamel deur middel van vraelyste wat op ewekansige wyse versprei is. Buiten 'n minderheid, is die vraelys in die algemeen goed deur ondernemings ontvang en het dit die verwagte resultate gelewer. Die resultate het die hipotese dat daar geen beduidende verskil in die indiensneming van persone met gestremdhede, ag jaar nadat die WGI en ander skynbare positiewe wetgewing geproklameer is nie, ondersteun. Daar was egter positiewe terugvoering van die meeste ondernemings wat betref hulle voornemes vir indiensneming van tersier gekwalifiseerde persone met gestremdhede. Die realiteit is dat daar in die meeste vakrigtings reeds 'n ooraanbod van tersier gekwalifiseerde persone wat nie-gestremd is, bestaan. Dit beteken eenvoudig dat die tersier gekwalifiseerde persoon met 'n gestremheid steeds, soos in die verlede, kan verwag om eenvoudig agter in die indiensneming tau te staan. Die verpligting om na persone met gestremdhede as 'n aangewese groep om te sien, is in die Grondwet verskans en in wetgewing vervat. Die werklike uitdaging vir ondernemings is egter om hulle sosiale aanspreeklikheid in pas te bring met die onderneming se korporatiewe karakter en waardestelsel deur gelyke werksgeleenthede aan persone met gestremdhede te bied.

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