Forest resource use and management in two villages in the former Ciskei, South Africa

Gugushe, Nomathamsanqa M. (2006-12)

Thesis (MSc) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2006.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Rural communities in South Africa are similar to communities in other areas of the developing world in terms of obtaining natural resources. A wide range of resources are harvested from the communal woodlands and processed for home consumption and sale. Until recently, there has been little recognition of the contribution these common pool resources make to the rural economy. In South Africa, only a few studies have attempted to estimate the monetary value of widely used non-timber woodland products. Natural resources valuation techniques were used to estimate the values of the direct consumption of woodland resources by households in two rural villages: Woodlands, and Pirrie Mission, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The two villages are situated next to two different vegetation types. Woodlands is in valley bushveld while Pirrie Mission is next to high mountain forest. The approach involved a combination of household interviews, participatory group sessions, key informant interviews and natural vegetation assessment. Questions were designed in such a way that they established the types of resources used, the frequency of use, quantities used, their availability, the extent to which they are traded both locally and in more distant markets and forms of management preferred. Participatory Vegetation assessment was done in order to monitor the forest use in both vegetation areas over a period of a year. Results indicated that in both study areas, all households were gathering or purchasing at least some woodland resources, with the most frequently used resources being fuelwood (48% in Woodlands and 51% in Pirrie Mission), branches (4% in Woodlands and 7% in Pirrie Mission), poles (21 % in Woodlands and 20% in Pirrie Mission), fencing (15% in Woodlands and 16% in Pirrie Mission) and herbs for medicinal purposes (12% in Woodlands and 7% in Pirrie Mission). Fuel wood and branches contributed to the largest proportion of overall value in both villages. There was no difference in terms of resource use despite the differing tenure of the woody resources. The majority of people from both villages ( 41 % in Woodlands and 29% in Pirrie Mission) believed that their woody resources could be used and managed sustainably if villagers and village management authorities could be involved in decision making on how to use them. Quantitative results of vegetation assessment revealed that the State Forest found at Pirrie Mission has a relatively high growth rate with mean values ranging between 0.01- 0.17 as compared to a communal woodland found in Woodlands village. Sustainable utilisation is critical to the survival of the indigenous woody vegetation. Based on the findings of this study one can conclude that both the community woodland and State forest are over-harvested. This can be attributed to the fact that after the 1994 elections, the State forest became available to all as the Government withdrew the management strategies used before the 1994 Government elections in South Africa.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Landelike gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika is soortgelyk aan gemeenskappe in ander areas van die ontwikkelende wereld in terme van die benutting van natuurlike hulpbronne. 'n Wye verskeidenheid van hulpbronne word verkry uit gemeenskaplike bosse en verwerk vir tuisgebruik en om te koop aan te hied. Tot onlangs was daar min erkenning vir die bydrae wat hierdie gemeenskaplike hulpbronne maak tot die landelike ekonomie. In Suid-Afrika is slegs 'n paar studies aangepak om die finansiele waarde van algemeen gebruikte nie-hout bosprodukte te beraam. In hierdie studie is natuurlike hulpbronwaarderingstegnieke gebruik om 'n skatting te maak van die waarde van die direkte verbruik van bosprodukte by huishoudings in twee landelike gemeenskappe: Woodlands, en Pirrie Sendingstasie, Oos-Kaap, Suid-Afrika. Die twee gemeenskappe is gelee langs twee verskillende plantegroei tipes. Woodlands is in vallei bosveld terwyl Pirrie Sendingstasie by bergwoude is. Die studiebenadering het 'n kombinasie van huishoudingonderhoude, groepsdeelnamesessies, sleutelinformantonderhoude en natuurlike plantegroei ondersoeke ingesluit. Die onderhoudvrae is sodanig ontwerp dat die tipes van hulpbronne gebruik, gebruiksfrekwensie, gebruikshoeveelhede, hulpbronbeskikbaarheid, en die mate waartoe die produkte in plaaslike sowel as verder afgelee markte te koop aangebied is, bepaal kon word. Die voorkeurvorme van hulpbronbestuur binne elke gemeenskap is ook ondersoek. Die plantegroei ondersoek is gedoen om die bosbenutting te monitor in beide plantegroeistreke oor 'n tydperk van een jaar. Die resultate het aangedui dat alle huishoudings van die hulpbronne versamel of gekoop het. Die mees algemeen gebruike van die hulpbronne was vir brandhout, ( 48% in Woodlands en 51% in Pirrie Sendingstasie), takke (4% in Woodlands en 7% in Pirrie Sendingstasie), pale (21 % in Woodlands en 20% in Pirrie Sendingstasie), heinings (15% if'\ Woodlands en 16% in Pirrie Sendingstasie), en kruie vir medisinale gebruik, ( 12% in Woodlands en 7% in Pirrie Sendingstasie). Brandhout en takke het die grootste bydrae gemaak tot die totale waarde van produkte in beide die gemeenskappe. Daar was geen verskil in terme van hulpbrongebruik as gevolg van verskille in eiendomsregte van die hulpbronne nie. Alhoewel die twee gemeenskappe onder verskillende eiendomsregstelsels funksioneer het, het die meeste van die inwoners van beide gemeenskappe (41 % in Woodlands en 29% in Pirrie Sendingstasie) geglo dat die hulpbronne volhoubaar bestuur kan word as beide die inwoners en die gemeenskapsbestuur betrokke is by benuttingsbesluite. Kwantitatiewe resultate van plantegroeibepalings het gewys dat die staatsbos by Pirrie Sendingstasie 'n relatiewe hoe groeitempo het, met gemiddelde woordes wat wissel tussen 0.01- 0.17, in vergelyking met die gemeenskaplike bos by Woodlands. Volhoubare benutting is krities vir die behoud van inheemse houtagtige plantegroei. Gegrond op die bevindings van hierdie studie kan daar afgelei word dat beide die gemeenskapsbos en die staatsbosoorbenut is. Dit kan toegeskryf word aan die feit dat die gebruik van die staatsbos aan almal oopgestel is na 1994 regeringsverkiesing in SuidAfrika.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50608
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