An historical overview and evaluation of the sustainability of the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD) Programme in South Africa

Tsawu, Simphiwe (2006-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2006.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Land policy in South Africa prior to 1994 was used as a political instrument to discriminate against the black population by preventing them from accessing land. The National Party government promulgated various laws that allowed the government to forcefully removed millions of black people from their original land to the so-called reserves. These removals resulted in extensive landlessness, homelessness, poverty, unemployment and economic disempowerment of blacks in South Africa. Prior to 1994 the explosive issue of land reform was the subject of debates between the different political parties, with diverse viewpoints on what should be done. Following much debate, when the African National Congress (ANC)-led government took over in 1994, a market approach of “willingbuyer, willing-seller” (WBWS) was adopted, with as goal the redistribution of 30% of farmland to blacks by 2015. A land reform programme was instituted, consisting of three programmes, namely land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform. The ANC government originally regarded land reform as a key programme to address unequal patterns of resource distribution, but there seems to be a broad consensus that land reform has changed its originally objectives. By December 2004, all aspects of the land reform programme had only transferred an area equal to 4, 3 % of commercial agricultural land to blacks. At the National Land Summit of July 2005, the majority of delegates agreed that the WBWS principle in the land redistribution process is no longer appropriate and called for alternative policies, such as expropriation to fast track the process of redistribution in South Africa. This integrated assignment focuses on the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD) sub-programme of the land redistribution programme in South Africa. It gives an overview of the history of land issues and land reform in South Africa. The study then evaluates the sustainability of the LRAD programme and investigates the many problems and challenges that still face the programme. The research is mainly literature based, and combines primary and secondary sources. The study concluded that the LRAD programme will not meet its well-known objective of transferring 30% of farmland to blacks by 2015, unless radical steps are taken to change the policy. A section on proposed policy changes is included. It is felt that if sustainable development principles and resolutions that were taken on the recent Land Summit are taken seriously and implemented successfully, the LRAD programme may achieve its target by 2015.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Voor 1994 is die Grondbeleid in Suid Afrika gebruik as ʼn politieke instrument om teen die swart bevolking te diskrimineer, deur hulle daarvan te weerhou om grond te bekom. Die Nasionale Party regering het verskeie wette gepromulgeer wat die regering toegelaat het om miljoene swart mense van hul oorspronklike grond te verwyder, na die sogenaamde reservate. Hierdie verskuiwings is die oorsaak van grootskaalse grondloosheid, dakloosheid, armoede, werkloosheid en ekonomiese ontmagtiging van swart mense in Suid Afrika. Voor 1994 was die eksplosiewe aspek van grondhervorming die onderwerp van debatte tussen die verskillende politieke partye, met uiteenlopende sienings oor wat gedoen moes word. Na baie debat, toe die ‘African National Congress’ (ANC) regering in 1994 oorneem, is ʼn gewillige koper, gewillige verkoper’ beleid aanvaar, met as doel die herverdeling van 30% van plaasgrond aan swartes teen 2015. ʼn Grondhervormingsbeleid in ingestel wat bestaan uit drie programme, naamlik grondrestitusie, grondherverdeling en grondeienaarskap hervorming. Die ANC regering het grondhervorming oorspronklik as ʼn sleutel program beskou om die ongelyke patroon van hulpbron verspreiding aan te spreek, maar daar is tans ʼn breë konsensus dat grondhervorming se oorspronklike doelwitte verander het. Teen Desember 2004, was daar, ingevolge alle aspekte van die grondhervormingsbeleid, slegs ʼn gebied gelyk aan 4,3% van kommersiële landbougrond oorgedra aan swart mense. By die Nasionale Grond Spitsberaad van Julie 2005 het die meerderheid van die deelnemers saamgestem dat die ‘gewillige koper, gewillige verkoper’ beleid nie langer geskik was nie, en is daar vir alternatiewe beleide gevra, soos onteiening om die proses van grondherverdeling te bespoedig. Hierdie geïntegreerde werkstuk fokus op die Grondherverdeling vir Landbou Ontwikkeling subprogram van die grondherverdeling program in Suid-Afrika. Daar word ʼn oorsig gegee van die geskiedenis van grondaangeleenthede en grondhervorming in Suid Afrika. Die studie evalueer die volhoubaarheid van die program en stel ondersoek in na die baie probleme en uitdagings wat die program nog in die gesig staar. Die studie is meestal literatuur-gebaseerd en kombineer primêre en sekondêre bronne. Die studie lei af dat die program nie sy welbekende doelwit van die oordra van 30% van plaasgrond na swart mense teen 2015 sal bereik nie, tensy radikale stappe geneem word om die beleid te wysig nie. Die studie sluit ʼn afdeling met voorgestelde beleidsveranderinge in. Daar word gevoel dat as volhoubare ontwikkelings-beginsels en besluite wat by die Grond Spitsberaad ernstig opgeneem en suksesvol geïmplementeer word, die program sy doelwitte teen 2015 mag bereik.

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