The imputation of Christ's righteousness to the wicked in the American great awakening and the Korean revivals

Kang, Paul ChulHong (2005-04)

Thesis (DTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2005

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study considers the doctrine of the forensic imputation of Christ's righteousness in both the Great Awakening and the Korean revivals through the six revivalists from the view of the Reformation doctrine oiforensic justification: Jonathan Edwards, Timothy Dwight, Sun-Ju Kil, Ik-Doo Kim, Yong-Do Lee, and Sung-Bong Lee. The key question is whether they maintain the Reformation doctrine of the forensic imputation of Christ's righteousness, affirming the sola fide-sola gratia language of the Reformers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin. The prime concern facing the six revivalists is the question of the status of humanity and the necessity of Christ's righteousness for forensic justification. It is of the utmost importance to see that justification by faith alone is fully embedded in the understanding of union with Christ. Jonathan Edwards stood firmly against any attempt to shrink God's free grace down to the size of human works in justification, following closely the Reformation doctrine of the forensic imputation of Christ's righteousness. Edwards elucidated Adamic and Christologicalforensic union in terms of divine constitution. He firmly held that through union with Christ Christ's alien righteousness is legally transferred or reckoned to the believers. Timothy Dwight, standing in a quite different tradition, rejected Edwards's notion of justification that justification is an absolute unmerited gift of God, apart from human works. Dwight affirmed neither prevenient grace nor justification in the Reformation terms of solajide, sola gratia, sola scriptura, solus Christus, sola Deo Gloria, a iustitia aliena (an alien righteousness), and a iustitia extra nos (a righteousness apart from us). By stressing the power of the human will, Sun-Ju Kil clearly thought that justification is exclusively an act of human beings. Kil's view of the act of faith alone made all the difference in imputation, connecting the wicked to the righteousness of Christ. Ik-Doo Kim also departed from the Reformation doctrine ofJorensic justification in failing to present the implications of Christ's imputed righteousness. Kim's doctrine of the power of prayer determined his view of justification. Kim's notion of repentance centered on the act of faith through prayer, which made Luther's solajide a human work or accomplishment in the imputation of Christ's righteousness. Yong-Do Lee placed his understanding of the justification of the wicked within the setting of the principle of oneness with Christ, with which he laid the foundation for the double exchange of life in his theology. Lee did not recognize a necessary connection between justification and the free grace of the sovereign God. Although Sung-Bong Lee found considerable depth in the imputation of Christ's righteousness in comparison with the three Korean revivalists, he failed effectively to distinguish between justification and sanctification. Lee's decisive proposal of union with Christ cannot be identified as the Reformation doctrine offorensic imputation. This study suggested that the five revivalists except Jonathan Edwards were unwilling to favor the Reformation doctrine offorensic justification regarding original sin, alien righteousness, union with Christ, and the forensic imputation of Christ's righteousness to the wicked.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word die forensiese siening van die leer van die regverdiging tydens die Amerikaanse Great Awakening en die Koreaanse revivals, in die teologie van Jonathan Edwards en Timothy Dwight enersyds, en Sun-Jul Kil, Ik-Doo Kim, Young- Do Lee en Sung-Bong Lee andersyds, ondersoek. 'n Kemkwessie is die vraag of hierdie opwekkingspredikers en teoloe getrou bly aan die Reformatoriese leer van die toerekening van Christus se geregtigheid soos dit tot uitdrukking kom in die aksent op solajide - sola gratia by Maartin Luther en Johannes Calvyn. Sentraal is die vraag na die staat van die mens en die noodsaaklikheid van Christus se geregtigheid vir forensiese regverdiging. Dit is van die grootste belang om te verstaan dat regverdiging deur die geloof aileen, onlosmaaklik verbonde is met die verstaan van ons eenheid met Christus. In aansluiting by die Reformatoriese leer van die forensiese toerekening van Christus se geregtigheid, verset Jonathan Edwards hom teen enige poging om deur goeie werke God se vrye genade te kompromiteer. Edwards verstaan Adamitiese en Christologiese forensiese eenheid in terme van goddelike konstitusie. Hy hou vas aan die oortuiging dat op grond van die gelowiges se eenheid met Christus, laasgenoemde se geregtigheid juridies oorgedra en toegereken word aan eersgenoemde. Timothy Dwight staan binne 'n heeltemal ander tradisie en verwerp Edward se opvatting van regverdiging as 'n totaal onverdiende gawe van God onafhanklik van menslike werke. Dwight onderskryf nog die leer van die voorafgaande genade, nog die Reformatoriese leer van die regverdiging in terme van sola jide, sola gratia, sola scriptura, solus Christus, soli Deo Gloria. Ook aanvaar hy nie die iustitia aliena (vreemde geregtigheid) en die iustitia extra nos ('n geregtigheid buite ons) me. As gevolg van sy aksent op die krag van die menslike wil is dit duidelik dat Sun-Ju-Kil regverdiging eksklusiefverstaan as 'n menslike daad. Sy siening van die daad van geloof aIleen maak 'n groot verskil deurdat die goddelose daardeur verbind word met Christus se geregtigheid. Doo-Kim wyk ook afvan die Reformatoriese leer van forensiese regverdiging aangesien hy nie daarin slaag om die implikasies van Christus se toegerekende geregtigheid uit te spel nie. Sy leer van die krag van gebed bepaal sy siening van die regverdiging. Sy opvatting van berou word gedra deur sy aksent op geloof-deur-gebed waardeur die sola fide soos geleer deur Luther, verander word in 'n menslike prestasie wat die imputasie van Christus se geregtigheid tot gevolg het. Yong-Do Lee verstaan die regverdiging van die goddelose binnne die beginsel van ons eenheid met Christus wat as basis dien vir die "dubbele ruil" in sy teologie. Hy sien nie 'n noodsaaklike relasie tussen regverdiging en die soewereine, vrye genade van God nie. Hoewel Sung-Bong Lee in vergelyking met die ander drie, heelwat diepte vind in die toerekening van Christus se geregtigheid, slaag hy nie daarin om duidelik te onderskei tussen regverdiging en heiliging nie. Sy deurslaggewende voorstel ten opsigte van die gelowiges se eenheid met Christus, kan nie vereenselwig word met die Reformatoriese leer van forensiese imputasie nie. Die gevolgtrekking van hierdie studie is dat, met die uitsondering van Jonathan Edwards, hierdie opwekkingspredikers en teoloe onwillig was om die Reformatoriese leer van die forensiese regverdiging met betrekking tot erfsonde, eenheid met Christus, en die forensiese toerekening van Christus se geregtigheid aan die sondaars, te onderskryf.

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