The effectiveness of a HIV/AIDS health promotion approach derived from the Health Belief Model
Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2005.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The purpose if this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a HIV/AIDS health promotion approach derived from the Health Belief Model (Becker and Maiman, 1975). The Health Belief Model is one of the conceptual models used to explain health compliance behaviour. According to the model an individual=s readiness to take action and engage in health - related behaviour (safe sex in the case of the present study) relative to a particular health condition (HIV/AIDS in the case of the present study) is a function of three factors. The first factor relates to the individual=s beliefs or perceptions of his/her likelihood of susceptibility to an illness as well as their perception of the severity of the consequences of having the illness. The second factor is the perceived benefit of action in contrast to the barrier to acting. The third factor relates to access to cues for action, that is cues that trigger appropriate health behaviour. The study was motivated by the observation that the incidence of HIV/AIDS in South Africa continues to rise despite heightened educational efforts undertaken in the workplace. The research question was two-fold: Firstly, the study was to determine whether there would be significant differences in HIV/AIDS health beliefs and health behaviour between participants receiving a traditional HIV/AIDS workshop and those receiving a cognitive restructuring workshop based on the Health Belief Model. Secondly, the study was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between HIV/AIDS health beliefs and HIV/AIDS health behaviour To test hypotheses relating to differences in health beliefs and health behaviour as well as the relationship between health beliefs and health behaviour, 78 employees in a government department were divided into two groups. One group, the control group, took part in a structured, lecture-type HIV/AIDS health promotion workshop. The other group, the experimental group, took part in an unstructured workshop designed to examine commonly held beliefs about HIV/AIDS. Prior to participation in the workshops, both groups completed the researcher designed AIDS Health Beliefs Questionnaire and AIDS Health Behaviour Questionnaires. Both groups then completed the same questionnaires one month after participating in the workshops and their pre-workshop and post-workshop responses were compared using t-tests. The relationship between health beliefs and health behaviour was examined using the Pearson r -correlation test. There were no significant differences in health beliefs and health behaviour between the two groups at pre- and post-workshop conditions. Only the control group females showed a significant difference in health beliefs at post-workshop assessment. There was an overall change in health beliefs at post-workshop assessment for the entire population. There were no significant differences in health beliefs and health behaviour between the control group and the experimental group. There was no significant relationship between health beliefs and health behaviour. Significant relationships were observed among the variables of the Health Belief Model. None of the health Belief Model variables predicted health behaviour. It was concluded that beliefs restructuring workshops had no effect on AIDS health behaviour. This study failed to show that positive health beliefs result in positive health behaviour.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Die doel van hierdie studie was 'n ondersoek na die doeltreffendheid van die Gesondheidsoortuigingsmodel (Becker & Meyer, 1975) as opvoedingsparadigma in 'n Suid-Afriakaanse konteks. 'n Eksperimentele- en kontrolegroep is gebruik om die model te toets. Geen beduidende verskille in gesondheidsoortuiging en gesondheidsoptrede is by die twee groepe gevind nie. Die studie kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat werkswinkels, wat poog am oortuigins te herstruktureer, geen beduidende invloed op MIV/ Vigs-gesondheidsoptrede het nie. Die studie dui daarop dat positiewe gesondheidsoortuigings nie tot positiewe gesondheidsoptrede lei nie. Moontlike redes vir hierdie gevolgtrekking word bespreek en voorstelle vir verdere studies word gemaak.