Facilitating human rights values across outcomes-based education and Waldorf education curricula

Du Preez, Petro (2005-12)

Thesis (MEd)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The facilitation of human rights values might be considered a means to rethink and redefine values education in South Africa. This study aimed at determining how human rights values were addressed in the context of independent Waldorf Education and government initiated outcomes-based education in South Africa, and how educators facilitated these values in various circumstances. In exploring the philosophies, theories and practices of these education models against the background of paradigmatic and post-paradigmatic philosophies in support of the socially constructive curriculum theory, important notions were highlighted that have preceded, and might follow, the facilitation of human rights values. The epistemologies, ontologies and methodologies of the emancipatory paradigm and postparadigmatic framework appeared to provide appropriate philosophical departure points regarding the facilitation of human rights values. This study anticipated the theoretical clarification of the concept human rights values and included a discussion on the importance of these values in various school contexts. Values identified from the Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy (2001), that were also present in the Curriculum: Waldorf Schools in South Africa (1995), were discussed as possible human rights values. Empirical research was conducted to explore how human rights values were attended to in good practice scenarios in order to provide insight into the questions posed regarding the facilitation of human rights values. Through systematic ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews it appeared that in both school contexts human rights values were more frequently addressed in incidental situations than in formal curriculum contents. This is interesting seeing that the outcomes-based education model has a number of documents to guide the facilitation of human rights values within formal curriculum contents, whereas the Waldorf approach has no such supportive documents. One might question the value and influence of numerous documents if basic knowledge that is required for the meaningful interpretation of such documents is not communicated from the outset. Moreover, it became evident that since Waldorf educators are adequately trained in Anthroposophy, the philosophy to which Waldorf schools adhere, they deal with curriculum matters such as socially constructing a curriculum more effectively. The training of outcomes-based education educators can be questioned regarding the philosophy, theory and methodology of outcomes-based education in view of the hasty implementation of this new model for government schools. As a result of this hurried process, educators of outcomes-based education are experiencing numerous uncertainties when they have to manage curriculum matters such as socially constructing a curriculum. Recommendations and related examples were provided after the completion of the study. This included, among others, the notions of dialogically facilitating human rights values to promote learners' understanding of their rights, and the rights of others; to transform incidental facilitation of human rights values into worthwhile teaching-learning experiences; to use human resources - including learners - to convey human rights values; and to focus educators' training (both in-service and pre-service) toward the inclusion of human rights values and promoting an understanding of socially constructing a curriculum. The study was concluded with the remark that human rights values might be an appropriate means to redefine values education, provided that the facilitation of human rights values are based on suitable theoretical and philosophical premises; and that those held responsible to facilitate such values are assisted in this task.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fasilitering van menseregte-waardes kan beskou word as 'n wyse om waarde-opvoeding in Suid-Afrika opnuut te deurdink en te herdefinieer. Hierdie studie het ten doel gehad om vas te stel hoe menseregte-waardes in onafhanklike Waldorf Onderwys en staatsgeïnisieerde uitkomsgebaseerde onderwyskontekste in Suid-Afrika aangespreek word, en ook hoe dit in die praktyk gefasiliteer word. Die verkenning van teorieë, filosofieë en praktyke aangaande die twee opvoedingsrnodelle teen die agtergrond van paradigmatiese en post-paradigmatiese filosofieë, ter ondersteuning van kurrikulumteorie, het kardinale aspekte wat die fasilitering voorafgegaan het, en moontlik tot gevolg kan hê, uitgelig. die sosiaal-konstruktiewe van menseregte-waardes Dit kom voor asof die epistemologieë, ontologieë en metodologieë onderliggend aan die emansipatoriese paradigma en die post-paradigmatiese raamwerk 'n genoegsame filosofiese aanvangspunt bied met betrekking tot die fasilitering van menseregte-waardes. In die studie is die konsep menseregte-waardes konseptueel-teoreties verklaar. Dit het ook 'n bespreking oor die belangrikheid van hierdie waardes in verskeie skoolkontekste ingesluit. Waardes geïdentifiseer uit die Onderwysrnanifes oor Waardes en Demokrasie in die Onderwys (Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy, 2001) wat ook sigbaar was in die Waldorf-kurrikulumdokument (Curriculum: Waldorf Schools in South Africa, 1995), is bespreek as moontlike menseregte-waardes. Empiriese navorsing is onderneem om die wyse waarop menseregte-waardes in goeie praktyk-scenarios aangespreek word te verken ten einde nuwe insig te verkry rakende die fasilitering van menseregte-waardes. Deur die sistematies-etnografiese waarnemings en semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude het dit voorgekom dat menseregte-waardes in beide skoolkontekste meestal in toevallige situasies aangespreek word, eerder as deel van formele kurrikuluminhoude. Dit is interessant, gegewe die feit dat die uitkomsgebaseerde opvoedingsmodel heelwat dokumente beskikbaar gestel het om die fasilitering van menseregte-waardes te rig, terwyl die Waldorf-benadering geen ondersteunende dokumentasie in dié verband bied nie. Mens kan tereg vra wat die waarde en invloed van sulke dokumente is as basiese kennis, wat nodig is om hierdie dokumente betekenisvol te interpreteer, nie eerste oorgedra word nie. Dit het ook gelyk asof Waldorf-onderwysers beter met kurrikulumverwante sake, soos die sosiale konstruering van 'n kurrikulum, omgaan weens hul goeie opleiding betreffende Antroposofie, die filosofie wat Waldorf-onderwys onderlê. Opvoeders in uitkomsgebaseerde onderwys se opleiding in die teorie, filosofie en metodologie van die onderwysmodel, wat beïnvloed is deur die haastige implementering van die nuwe model in staatskole, kan bevraagteken word. Laasgenoemde aspek blyk onsekerhede te veroorsaak wanneer hierdie onderwysers kurrikulumverwante sake, soos die sosiale konstruering van 'n kurrikulum, moet hanteer. Ná afloop van die studie is sekere aanbevelings en verwante voorbeelde gegee. Dit het onder meer die volgende ingesluit: dat dialoog na 'n wenslike fasiliteringstrategie lyk in die bevordering van leerders se begrip van hul regte, asook dié van andere; dat situasies waartydens menseregte-waardes toevallig aangespreek word omskep kan word in waardevolle onderrig-Ieerervaringe; dat menslike hulpbronne - insluitende leerders - gebruik kan word om menseregte-waardes oor te dra; en dat onderwysersopleiding (beide indiens en voordiens ) op die insluiting van menseregte-waardes en die bevordering van begrip vir die sosiale konstruering van 'n kurrikulum moet fokus. Die studie is afgesluit met die opmerking dat menseregte-waardes tot die herdefiniëring van waarde-opvoeding mag bydra, gegewe dat dit op gepaste teoretiese en filosofiese begrondinge gebaseer is, en dat diegene wat verantwoordelik gehou word vir die fasilitering van sulke waardes, die nodige ondersteuning in dié verband sal kry.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50351
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