Demokratiese onderwys in Namibiese primêre skole : vlak of diep?

Kotze, Chrisna Gloudina (2005-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To make sure that democracy in a country such as Namibia with a relative young democracy develop and remain intact, citizens who committed themselves to democracy are needed. Education plays a central role in the realisation of this goal. Although democracy is one of the central goals of the Namibian education policy, it is by no means a guarantee that deep democracy is realised in primary schools in Namibia. Before I started this investigation, I first determined if a philosophical approach is a suitable research mechanism for research about education. I came to the conclusion that a philosophical approach is very relevant and offers many possibilities for research about education. Furthermore, I discovered that the concern about the impact that philosophy has on education and teaching in particular, seems to be ungrounded. With this philosophical investigation in mind, particularly through the investigation of concepts such as 'democracy', 'democratic education' and 'democratic citizenship education, I try to determine what deep democratic education involves. I investigate the link between democratic citizenship and democratic education on the basis of three different theories, namely liberalism, communitarianism (liberal, left, right communitarianism and civic republicanism) and deliberative democracy (public reasoning, discursive democracy and communicative democracy). It is my contention that deliberative democracy as an educational process provides more possibilities to bring about deep democracy in schools. The transformation of education in Namibia after independence in 1990 is investigated to determine to what degree the education system has been successfully democratised. An in-depth study of the teaching approach used in schools in Namibia, is explored to determine if it meets the requirements to educate learners to be responsible democratic citizens who can fulfill their duty in the democratic society of Namibia. The central issue, which this dissertation addresses, is that learner-centred education, the approach that is used in Namibian schools, does not ensure deep democracy in Namibian primary schools. Learner-centredness holds that the learners' needs should be central in the teaching and learning process, while the role of the teacher is that of facilitator. There are many factors, on the learners as well as on the teacher's side, which prevent the successful implementation of this approach. I hold that although these deficiencies can be solved in the course of time learner centred-education can still not ensure deep democratic education. The problem is that learner-centred education does not have a democratic civic education agenda and is attuned to an instrumental point of view which constitutes education. It is my contention that if learner-centred education can be supported and adapted so that it is provided with a democratic civic education agenda, it has the potential to contribute to manifest deep democracy in primary schools in Namibia. To achieve this goal teachers who are committed to democracy and who are willing to transform their classrooms in forums where learners can practice the competencies of deliberative democracy, are needed. I hold that democratic civic education is about the development and promotion of learners' communication capabilities, to make a logical argument and to reason, as well as their ability to think critically and practice reflection.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Om te verseker dat demokrasie ontwikkel en tot stand kom in 'n land soos Namibië met 'n betreklike jong demokrasie, word burgers benodig wat hulself verbind tot demokrasie. Onderwys speel 'n sentrale rol in die verwesenliking van hierdie doelwit. Hoewel demokrasie een van die sentrale doelwitte van die Namibiese onderwysbeleid is, is dit nie 'n waarborg dat diep demokratiese onderwys wel in primêre skole in Namibië verwesenlik word nie. Voordat ek met my ondersoek begin het, het ek eers vasgestel of 'n filosofiese benadering 'n geskikte navorsingsmetode vir navorsing oor die onderwys is. Ek het nie net tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n filosofiese benadering baie relevant en baie moontlikhede bied vir navorsing oor onderwys nie, maar ook dat die besorgdheid wat daar heers oor die impak van filosofie op opvoeding en onderwys heeltemal ongegrond is. Met hierdie filosofiese ondersoek probeer ek vasstel wat diep demokratiese onderwys behels deur konsepte soos 'demokrasie', 'demokratiese onderwys' en 'demokratiese burgerskapsopvoeding' te ondersoek. Ek ondersoek die verband tussen demokratiese burgerskap en demokratiese onderwys aan die hand van drie verskillende teorieë, naamlik liberalisme, kommunitarisme (liberale-, linkse-, regse kommunitarisme en burgerlike republikanisme) en beraadslagende demokrasie (openbare redelikheid, diskursiewe demokrasie en kommunikatiewe demokrasie). Dit is my mening dat beraadslagende demokrasie as opvoedkundige proses die meeste moontlikhede bied om diep demokratiese onderwys in skole te weeg te bring. Die transformasie wat in die onderwys van Namibië plaasgevind het nadat die land in 1990 onafhanklik geraak het, word ondersoek om vas te stel tot hoe 'n mate daarin geslaag is om die onderwysstelsel te demokratiseer. Daar word veral in diepte ondersoek ingestel na die onderrigbenadering wat daar in skole gebruik word om vas te stel of dit voldoende is om leerders op te voed tot verantwoordelike demokratiese burgers wat hul plek in die demokratiese samelewing van Namibië kan volstaan. Die sentrale kwessie wat hierdie proefskrif aanspreek is dat leerder-gesentreerde onderwys, die benadering wat in Namibiese skole gebruik word, nie diep demokrasie in Namibiese primêre skole verseker nie. Leerder-gesentreerdheid gaan van die standpunt uit dat die behoefte van die leerders sentraal gestel moet word in die onderrigleerproses, terwyl die onderwyser die rol van fasiliteerder vervul. Daar is baie faktore aan die kant van die onderwysers sowel as aan die kant van die leerders wat die suksesvolle toepassing van hierdie benadering belemmer, maar al sou hierdie leemtes ook mettertyd uit die weg geruim word, sal dit nie diep demokratiese onderwys verseker nie. Die probleem is dat leerder-gesentreerde onderwys nie 'n demokratiese burgerskapsopvoedingsagenda bevat nie en ingestel is op 'n instrumentele siening oor onderwys. Dit is my siening dat as leerder-gesentreerde onderwys ondersteun en aangepas kan word sodat dit van 'n demokratiese burgerskapsopvoedingsagende voorsien word, dit kan bydra om diep demokrasie in primêre skole in Namibië te verseker. Om in hierdie doel te slaag word onderwysers benodig wat hulle verbind tot demokrasie en wat poog om hul klaskamers in forums te omskep waar beraadslagende demokratiese vaardighede deur leerders beoefen kan word. Demokratiese burgerskapsopvoeding gaan vir my hoofsaaklik daaroor om leerders se kommunikasievaardighede, hul vermoë om logiese argumente te kan vorm en hul redenasievermoë te ontwikkel en te bevorder, asook om kritiese- en reflektiewe denke by hulle te ontwikkel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50311
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