A production model for commercial integrated aquaculture development in KwaZulu-Natal using family scale modular units

Joubert, Gerard Michel (2005-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the status of world aquaculture with a primary focus on Sub-Saharan and Chinese freshwater aquaculture, and proposes a commercial integrated farming model for implementation in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal. The model combines the paradigms of age-old Chinese integrated pond farming principles with a commercial approach in the socio-economic context of Sub-Saharan Africa. The project's objective is to contribute to the alleviation of poverty through economic development in rural areas using environmentally and economically sustainable farming practices. The project's medium-term goal is to achieve the critical production volume to warrant vertical integration into a hatchery, feed mill and processing facility. Integration would reduce operating costs and afford better standards of basic services. The project's long-term goal is to grow and expand the model to make a contribution to global food security through distributing a fish-based, nutritionally balanced meal to famine relieve efforts in low-income food deficiency countries (LIFDC). The model proposes the development of individual farms each with a production capacity of 40 to 60 tons of fish per annum. The species available include tilapia, catfish, carp, mullet, bass and eels. The farms will each consist of eight grow-out fishponds totalling 4 hectares of water surface area, a basic homestead and 6 hectares for crops and livestock rearing. The farms are designed to utilize the nutrient rich effluent from the fishponds to flood-irrigate crops planted in the fields below. Through application of the principles of the integrated approach to fish-crops-livestock farming as applied by the Chinese over the last 2,000 years, the farms are designed in a way that nothing is wasted. The waste product from one system becomes input for the next system. The integrated approach is extremely cost effective and lends itself to total organic farming adhering to environmentally responsible and sustainable farming principles. Two hundred such farming units would produce a total of 8,000 to 12,000 ton per year that equates to double the current combined freshwater aquaculture production from all the SADC member countries.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die werkstuk bied 'n oorsig van akwakultuur in die wêreld, met 'n primêre fokus op die stand van varswater akwakultuur in Sub-Sahara en China. 'n Ontwikkelingsmodel vir geïntegreerde kommersiële boerdery word voorgestel, in die plattelandse dele van KwaZulu-Natal word woorhou. Die model koppel die konsepte van eeue-oue Chinese beginsels van geïntegreerde visboerdery met kommersiële winsgewendheid, binne die sosio-ekonomiese konsep van sub- Sahara Afrika. Die doel van die model is om 'n beduidende rol te speel in die verligting van armoede deur die ontwikkeling van ekonomiese aktiwiteit in plattelandse gebiede d.m.v. omgewings- en ekonomies volhoubare boerderypraktyke. Die projek se mediumtermyndoelwit is om die kritiese produksievolume te bereik wat vertikale integrasie met 'n visbroeiery, 'n voermeule en 'n prosesseringsfasiliteit sal regverdig. Dit saloperasionele kostes verminder en beter beheer verseker oor hierdie basiese insette. Die langtermyndoelwit is om die model uit te brei ten einde 'n bydrae te maak tot globale voedselvoorsiening deur die verspreiding van 'n voedsame, gebalanseerde maaltyd met vis as basis, as hongersnoodverligting in lae inkomste lande met 'n voedseltekort. Die model stel 'n reeks individuele plase voor, elk met 'n produksiekapasiteit van 40 tot 60 ton vis per jaar. Die beskikbare spesies sluit in tilapia, baber, harder, swartbaars en paling. Elke plaas sal bestaan uit agt uitgroeidamme van 'n halwe hektaar elk, 'n totaal van vier hektaar wateroppervlakte, 'n woonhuis en ses hektaar vir gewasse en veë. Die plase is ontwerp ten eide die voedingsryke uitvloeisel van die visdamme te gebruik vir besproeiing van die laerliggende landerye. Deur gebruik te maak van die beginsel van integrasie van 'n vis-, gewas- en vee-boerdery, aan die hand van die Chinese ontwikkelingsmodel oor die afgelope 2,000 jaar, word gepoog om niks te vermors nie. Die afvalproduk van een stelsel word 'n inset in die volgende. Hierdie benadering is uiters koste-effektief en leen homself tot organiese boerdery praktyke wat voldoen aan bewaringsbewuste en volhoubare boerderymetodes. Tweehonderd plaaseenhede sal 'n gesamentlike bydrae van 8,000 tot 12,000 ton per jaar lewer, wat gelykstaande is aan dubbeld die huidige gekombineerde varswater akwakultuurproduksie van al die SADC-Iedelande.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50275
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