The influence of chemical seed treatment on germination, seedling survival and yield of canola

De Villiers, Rykie (Rykie Jacoba) (2004-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The influence of chemical seed treatments on the germination, seedling survival and yield of canola (cv. Varola 44) was investigated in a series of incubation studies, glasshouse experiments, as well as field trials in the canola producing areas in the Western Cape Province. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare germination and seedling growth of untreated (control) seed with that of seed treated at different application rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 times the recommended) of Cruiser® and SA-combination (which consists of Thiulin® at 0.5g a.i.; Apron® at 0.0815 g a.i.; Gaucho® at 0.6125 g a.i. and Rovral® at 0.9975 g a.i.). The results indicated that seed treatment (all rates of SA-combination and highest rate of Cruiser) delayed germination and seedling growth, especially if the seed was subjected to the Accelerated Ageing Test. Glasshouse studies with pasteurised soil at different water contents, seed sources (storage periods) and planting depths confirmed the phytotoxic effects of the chemical seed treatments in the absence of soil borne pathogens. From the results it became clear that extreme water conditions (very wet or dry) increased the suppressing effect on germination and seedling growth, but that no phytotoxic reactions occurred in moist (favourable soil water conditions) soil, regardless of application rate of the chemicals used, planting depth and seed source. In a second glasshouse experiment conducted in moist soil (kept at 50% of field water capacity to prevent any toxic effects) from seven different localities that were naturally infested with pathogens, both chemicals proved to be effective where soil borne pathogens (Rhizocfonia so/ani and Pythium spp.) occurred. No clear trend could however be found due to either chemical or application rates used. Finally, field trials were conducted to study the effect of chemical seed treatments on the plant populations and yield of canola planted in different row widths (17 and 34 cm) and seeding rates (3, 5 and 7 kq.ha'). Results showed that treated seeds produced more plants.rn" and yielded more than untreated seeds at Roodebloem Experimental Farm, while the highest seeding rate produced significantly more plants.rn" (Roodebloem and Langgewens Experimental Farms), but not significantly higher yields than the lowest seeding rate at the same locality. Although row width did not have an effect on plant population, yield (Roodebloem 2003) was significantly less at the wider (34 cm) rows. As in earlier experiments, no consistent differences between the two chemicals used were found. These results clearly illustrated both the negative (in the absence of pathogens) and positive (where soil borne pathogens do occur) effects that chemical seed treatments may have on the germination, seedling growth and even yield of canola under local environmental and soil conditions. Because no significant differences were found between the chemicals used, both chemicals should be regarded as efficient. More research, especially under field conditions and with more cultivars, is needed before the registration of a chemical for seed treatment could be considered.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die invloed van chemiese saadbehandeling op die ontkieming, saailing oorlewing en opbrengs van canola (cv. Varola 44) is ondersoek in 'n reeks inkubasie studies, glashuis eksperimente en veldproewe in die canolaproduserende gebiede in die Wes Kaap Provinsie. Inkubasie eksperimente is uitgevoer om die ontkieming en saailing groei van onbehandelde (kontrole) saad te vergelyk met dié van saad wat behandel is teen verskillende dosisse (0.5, 1.0 en 2.0 keer die aanbevole) van Cruiser® en SA-kombinasie (wat bestaan uit Thiulin® teen 0.5g a.i.; Apron® teen 0.0815 g a.i.; Gaucho® teen 0.6125 g a.i. en Rovral® teen 0.9975 g a.i.). Die resultate het aangedui dat saadbehandeling (vir alle dosisse van SAkombinasie en die hoogste dosis van Cruiser) ontkieming en saailing groei vertraag, veral wanneer die saad onderwerp was aan die Versnelde Verouderings Toets. Glashuis studies met gepasteuriseerde grond by verskillende waterinhoude, saad bronne (stoor periodes) en plantdieptes, het die fitotoksiese effekte van die chemiese saadbehandelings bevestig in die afwesigheid van grondgedraagde patogene. Vanuit die resultate het dit duidelik geword dat ekstreme water toestande (baie nat of droog) die onderdrukkende effek op ontkieming en saailinggroei verhoog het, maar dat geen fitotoksiese reaksies plaasgevind het in klam (gunstige grondwater toestande) grond nie, ongeag die dosisse of chemikalieë gebruik, plantdiepte en saad bron. In 'n tweede glashuis eksperiment uitgevoer in klam grond (gehou by 50% van veldwaterkapasiteit om toksiese effekte te voorkom) van sewe lokaliteite wat natuurlik besmet was met patogene, was beide chemikalië effektief waar grondgedraagde patogene (Rhizoctonia so/ani en Pythium spp.) voorgekom het. Geen duidelike tendens is egter waargeneem vir enige van die chemikalieë of dosisse nie. Laastens is veldproewe uitgevoer om die effek van chemiese saadbehandelings op plant populasies en opbrengs te bepaal van canola geplant in verskillende rywydtes (17 en 34 cm) en saaidigthede (3, 5 en 7 kg.ha-1). Resultate het aangedui dat behandelde saad meer plante.rn" produseer en 'n groter opbrengs lewer as onbehandelde saad by Roodebloem Eksperimentele Plaas, terwyl die hoogste saaidigtheid betekenisvol meer plante.m" (Roodebloem en Langgewens Eksperimentele Plase), maar nie betekenisvol hoër opbrengste gelewer het as die laagste saaidigtheid by dieselfde lokaliteit nie. AI het rywydte nie 'n effek op plant populasie gehad nie, was opbrengs (Roodebloem 2003) betekenisvol minder by die wyer (34 cm) rye. Soos in vroeëre eksperimente is geen konsekwente verskille tussen die twee chemikalieë gevind nie. Hierdie resultate illustreer duidelik beide negatiewe (in die afwesigheid van grondgedraagde patogene) en positiewe (in die aanwesigheid van grondgedraagde patogene) effekte wat chemiese saadbehandelings op ontkieming, saailing groei en selfs opbrengs van canola onder plaaslike omgewings en grondtoestande kan hê. Omdat geen betekenisvolle verskille tussen die chemikalieë gevind is nie, moet beide chemikalieë as doeltreffend aanvaar word. Meer navorsing, veralonder veldtoestande en met meer kultivars, is egter nodig voordat die registrasie van 'n chemiese middel vir saadbehandeling oorweeg kan word.

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