The effect of shoot heterogeneity on the physiology and grape composition of Shiraz/Richter 99 grapevines

Cloete, Hanle (2004-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The effect of shoot heterogeneity on vegetative and reproductive growth parameters, vine physiology and grape composition was investigated in a ShirazlRichter 99 vineyard. Comparisons between underdeveloped (typically shorter and less ripened at véraison) and normally developed shoots in both shaded (non-manipulated) and well-exposed (manipulated) canopies were made. Compared to underdeveloped shoots, normal shoots had a larger total leaf area, due to the higher occurrence of secondary shoots as well as larger leaves on primary and secondary shoots. Since the photosynthetic activity of the leaves from normal shoots was higher than those from underdeveloped shoots, higher levels of carbohydrates were produced and stored in the former. Starch was more evenly distributed over the length of the whole shoot in normally developed shoots compared to underdeveloped shoots. Normally developed shoots were longer and thicker in diameter than underdeveloped shoots. The larger clusters of the normally developed shoots are evidence of their more favourable total leaf area per gram berry mass. Berries from the normally developed shoots were smaller at five weeks after véraison than those from underdeveloped shoots, displaying a higher skin to pulp ratio and therefore higher anthocyanin and total phenolic extraction potential for winemaking. The smaller clusters and fewer berries per cluster found for the underdeveloped shoots indicate an imbalance between vegetative and reproductive growth initiated during the vegetative growth phase and continued during the ripening period. The peculiar absence of statistically significant differences in grape composition between normally and underdeveloped shoots indicates that assimilates needed for berry ripening of the latter originated in organs other than the leaves [e.g. from adjacent normal shoots and the rest of the permanent structure of the vine (cordon, trunk, roots)]. The larger differences in berry size that occurred between shoot types in the shaded compared to the well-exposed canopies may be evidence for this. The photosynthetic activity of shoots was lower in shaded than in exposed canopies. The total carbohydrate production of the normal shoots in shaded canopies seemed insufficient to supply in the ripening needs of the shoot itself, their own clusters as well as the ripening of stem tissue and clusters of the underdeveloped shoots in the canopy. This is illustrated by the lower levels of starch that accumulated in the normal shoots from shaded compared to that of exposed canopies. Vine shoot heterogeneity clearly leads to visible and physiological imbalances that would impact negatively on grape and wine quality as well as production costs and should therefore be avoided on any terroir.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie is die effek van heterogene lootontwikkeling in die lower van 'n ShirazlRichter 99 wingerd ondersoek. Vergelykings is getref tussen normale en onderontwikkelde lote in beskadude en blootgestelde lowers ten opsigte van hul vegetatiewe en reproduktiewe groeieienskappe, fisiologiese aktiwiteit en druifsamestelling en -gehalte. 'n Groter totale blaaroppervlak het by die normaalontwikkelde lote voorgekom as gevolg van die groter aantal sekondêre lote en groter primêre en sekondêre blare. Aangesien die blare van die normaal ontwikkelde lote fotosinteties meer aktief was as dié van onderontwikkelde lote, het die eersgenoemde lote groter hoeveelhede koolhidrate geproduseer en gestoor. Styselopberging het meer eweredig oor die lengte van die normale lote plaasgevind. Laasgenoemde lote was ook heelwat langer en dikker in deursnee as die onderontwikkelde lote. Die gunstiger totale blaaroppervlak per korrelmassa verhouding van die normale lote is duidelik weerspieêl in die groter trosse, terwyl die kleiner korrels (en dus die groter dop:pulp verhouding) op 'n groter potensiaal vir kleur- en fenolekstraksie tydens die wynbereidingsproses dui. Die kleiner trosse en kleiner aantal korrels per tros wat by die onderontwikkelde lote gevind is, dui op 'n wanbalans tussen die vegetatiewe en reproduktiewe groei van die loot wat tydens die vegetatiewe groeifase van die wingerdstok geïnisieer is en tydens die rypwordingsperiode voortgesit is. Die vreemde afwesigheid van enige statisties betekenisvolle verskille in druifsamestelling tussen die normale en onderontwikkelde lote dui daarop dat die verbindings wat vir die rypmaking van trosse op onderontwikkelde lote aangewend is, waarskynlik van ander wingerdorgane (bv. naasliggende lote, kordonarms, stam, wortels) as die spesifieke loot se blare afkomstig was. Die waarneming dat die korrelgroottes van normale en onderontwikkelde lote meer van mekaar verskil het in die beskadude as blootgestelde lowers, kan moontlik as bewys hiervoor dien. Die fotosintetiese aktiwiteit van beide loottipes was laer in die skaduryke lowers. Die koolhidrate wat deur normaalontwikkelde lote in skadu-Iowers geproduseer is, was oênskynlik onvoldoende vir die rypmaking van die loot self, die spesifieke loot se trosse, asook die trosse en lootweefsel van naasliggende onderontwikkelde lote. Hierdie bewerings word gerugsteun deur die laer vlakke van styselakkumulasie wat by die normale lote in beskadude lowers gevind is. Aangesien heterogene lootontwikkeling en -groei duidelike sigbare en fisiologiese wanbalanse in die wingerdstok tot gevolg het wat negatief op druifsamestelling, wyngehalte en produksiekoste inwerk, behoort dit in kommersiêle wingerde vermy te word.

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