The effect of dietary L-carntine [i.e. carnitine] supplementation on production performance parameters of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, at sub-optimal water temperature

Tekle, Esayas Welday (2004-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 60-day growth experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Lcarnitine supplementation on the production performance parameters of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mosambicus. A number of approximately 140 tilapia fry with average weight of l.4g ± 0.71g were stocked in each of 40 fine-meshed hapas (I mx 1mx 1.5m) submerged within a complete recirculation pond system. During the first 30 days of the experiment water temperatures ranged from 19 to 23°C where after it decreased to 16-20°C for the consecutive 30-day period. Dietary treatments consisted of 8 replicates of 5 levels of L-carnitine supplementation labelled as Co, C250,C500, C750 and C 1000represented Omg, 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg L-carnitine supplementation per kg feed respectively. Results were analyzed for significant differences using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's pairwise comparison test for growth rate, feed intake (FI) and feed conversion efficiency. After completion of the trial 8 fish from each hapa were sacrificed and analyzed for cephalosomatic index (CSI), dress out percentage (viscera, gills and head excluded), viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSl). Poor production performance results were generally observed as water temperatures were sub-optimal, especially during the second 30-days period. Results from the trial indicate no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments for weight gain, FCR, FI and VS!. A negative trend was observed for FCR with increasing level of L-carnitine supplementation for both the first 30-day period (1.50±0.07, 1.53±0.08, 1.58±0.09 and 1.61±0.17 for C250,C50Q,C750and C 1000)as well as for the consecutive lower temperature 30-day period (2.22±0.10, 2.25±0.ll, 2.27±0.28 and 2.29±0.2l for C250, C500, C750 and C 10(0)'Although statistically not significant, fish fed the C250showed better performance in dress out percentage weight either than the control or the higher levels. The increasing trend for head weight with increasing level of L-carnitine supplementation were significant (P<0.05) from Co and C250with and above C500.The decreasing trend for liver weight with increasing level of L-carnitine supplementation became significant (P<0.05) with and above C750.The results of the current study showed a trend in the improvement of L-carnitine on the production performance parameters. However, the natural content of L-carnitine in the basal diet impaired with the inclusion levels, thus further research at lower inclusion levels is recommended.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Proef oor 'n tydperk van 60-dae is onderneem om die effek van L-karniten aanvulling op produksie prestasie parameters van Mosambiek tilapia (0. mosambicusi te ondersoek. 140 tilapia vingerlinge met 'n gemiddelde massa van lAg ± 0.7lg is ewekansig uitgeplaas in 40 eksperimentele hapa-hokkies (lmxlmx1.5m) in "n hersirkulasie sementdam-stelsel. Gedurende die eerste 30 dae van die proef het water temperatuur gewissel tussen 19 to 23°C waarna dit gedaal het na tussen l6-20°C vir die opeenvolgende 30-dag periode. Proef-rantsoen behandelings het bestaan uit 8 herhalings van 5 vlakke van L-karnitien aanvulling, naamlik Co,C250, C500, C750 en CIOOOvir Omg, 250mg, 500mg, 750mg en 1000mg L-karnitien aanvulling per kg voer afsonderlik. Resultate was ontleed vir betekenisvolle verskille deur gebruik te maak van analise van variansie (ANOVA) ontleding en die Tukey se vergelykende toets vir groeitempo, voerinname en voeromsettingsverhouding. Aan die einde van die proefperiode is 8 visse van elke hapa ontleed vir liggaamskomponent-samestelling (kop-, ingewande- en hepatosomatiese indekse. Ondergemiddelde produksie resultate is waargeneem wat toegeskryf kan word aan onder-optimale water temperature, veral gedurende die tweede 30-dag periode van die proef. Proef resultate het geen betekenisvolle verskille (P>0.05) in massatoename, voeromsettingsverhouding (VOV) of visserosomatiese indeks tussen behandelings getoon nie. 'n Negatiewe neiging is waargeneem vir VOV met toenemende vlakke van L-kamitien insluiting vir beide die eerste 30 dag periode (1.50±0.07, 1.53±0.08, 1.58±0.09 and 1.61±0.17 for C250, C500, C750 and CIOOO) sowel as vir die opvolgende 30-day periode nie (2.22±0.10, 2.25±0.11, 2.27±0.28 and 2.29±0.21 for C250, C50o, C750 and CIOOO). 'n Toenemende neiging vir kop-massa met toenemende L-kamitien insluiting was betekenisvol (P<0.05) vanaf Co en C250 met en hoër as C500. 'n Dalende neiging vir lewermassa met toenemde L-kinsluiting was betekenisvol (P<0.05) met en hoër as C750. Resultate van die proef dui oor die algemeen op 'n neiging tot verbeterde produksie prestasie parameters van tilapia vingerlinge met toenemde insluiting van Lkamitien. Verdere navorsing word aanbeveel om die invloed van natuurlike Lkamitien in die proteïen-bronne van die basaalrantsoen te op die gebrek aan betekenisvolheid van hierdie neiging te verklaar.

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