River discharges derived from single velocity measurements

Cloete, Gert Christiaan (2004-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This work investigates methods to theoretically determine the lateral velocity distribution across a river from which factors may be derived to translate a single point velocity into average velocity for the river as a whole. A wide range of field data from vanous nvers was analysed. This produced over a hundred velocity distributions with which to compare theoretical distribution results. Four theoretical approaches were considered: the one-dimensional method (Manning's equation), a two-dimensional flow formula solved as an initial-value-problem, a two dimensional flow formula solved as a boundary-value-problem and an empirical method developed from energy principles. The one-dimensional and initial-value-problem approaches were unsuccessful. The boundary-value and empirical approach did however produce promising results. Surprisingly the analysis of the field data revealed patterns of similarity which could produce accurate results without the need of a theoretical approach.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Metodes word ondersoek om teoreties 'n laterale snelheidsverspreiding oor 'n rivier te bepaal en sodoende 'n faktor te vind waarmee 'n gemete enkelpuntsnelheid in die rivier omgeskakel kan word na 'n gemiddelde snelheid vir die rivier in geheel. Vloeimeetdata van verskeie nviere IS geanaliseer. Sodoende is meer as 100 snelheidsverspreidings gegenereer waarmee die teorie vergelyk kon word. Vier teoretiese benaderings is gevolg: Manning se een-dimensionele vloeivergelyking, 'n twee dimensionele vloei-vergelyking opgelos met behulp van 'n beginwaarde, 'n twee dimensionele vloei-vergelyking opgelos met behulp van randwaardes, en 'n empiriese metode ontwikkel vanuit energie beginsels. Die een-dimensionele- en beginwaarde-benaderings was me suksesvol me. Die randwaarde- en empiriese benaderings het wel belowende resultate gelewer. Selfs verwerking van die gemete stroommetings het waardevolle inligting gelewer: daar bestaan duidelike ooreenkomste in die snelheidsverspreidings wat gebruik kan word om die verspreidingsfaktor mee te bereken sonder om teoretiese oplossings te soek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50087
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