Nie-formele leerondersteuning in die grondslagfase

Le Roux, Anne-Mari Reynette (2004-04)

On t.p.: Magister in Opvoedkunde (Spesialiseringsonderwys)

Thesis (MEd)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The role of primary educators ("parents") in the support of their children within school context, has in the past often been neglected. The responsibility for the support of their children within school context was left to teachers, or it was accepted that primary educators did not have specialized knowledge and that learning support should occur only at school. Within South African context primary educators are often semi-literate, illiterate or socio-economically disadvantaged and see themselves as incompetent to support their children within school context. The important role and influence that primary educators have on learners' learning support is nevertheless emerging prominently. Research indicates that pnmary educators play a key role in the cognitive development, language acquisition, literacy, affective and normative development of a learner. From birth the environment and external stimuli are mediated to the child. The primary educator supports his or her complete development. The learner will, for example, develop a sense of self worth through the security that the primary educator provides within the family system, and social behavior is learned through modelling. The question remains however as to how primary educators can be empowered to support learners within the family system in order to prevent potential barriers to learning and how to actualize learners' learning potential. Currently there is a need for literature regarding non-formal learning support and learning support strategies which are also directed towards the demands of Outcomes Based Education and also provide information regarding the profile of learners in the Foundation Phase. The aim of this study is to conduct a purposeful investigation into non-formal learning support in order that primary educators may be empowered to support their children's learning in such purposeful manner. The study has implications regarding the manner in which pnmary educators deal with their children's learning development, the actualization of the learner's learning potential in both the school and the family system, as well as the quality of the communication between primary educators, learners and teachers. The research was conducted from an eco-systemic and constructivist perspective. Learning support will remain reductionistic and ineffective without the dynamic and reciprocal interaction between the systems in which the individual functions being acknowledged, whether it is in the family or school system or not. The establishment of a triarchic partnership between the learner, primary educator and teacher contributes to the establishment of an unobstructed system of communication which promotes good systemic interaction. Each individual has a unique framework of experience (schemata) that influences the way in which he or she interacts with the social context or learning situation. This unique schemata must be acknowledged and incorporated into the teaching and learning situation in order to make the learning experience meaningful for the learner. The research methodology was planned within a qualitative framework and performed by means of an inductive investigation. Data was collected by means of an open questionnaire directed to four teachers, short biographical questionnaires directed to primary educators and two focus group interviews with ten primary educators. The data was continuously interpreted having regard to the participants' own perspectives, as well as the eco-systemic and constructivist foundation of the study. Such data was presented through a rich and detailed description of the participants' contributions. The completeness of these descriptions were verified through transcriptions and field notes. Such description of data, together with the literature review, formed the foundation according to which categories, themes and sub-themes were identified. The categories and themes subsequently formed the basis according to which data was interpreted and conclusions and recommendations were made. Conclusions confirm the importance of the empowerment of primary educators to support their children within school context. This empowerment embraces the intention of the South African Schools Act, 1996 (Act 84 of 1996). Primary educators already have the ability and skills to support learners within the school context. These skills should however be developed and supported. Primary educators should be made aware of these existing skills and be motivated to use it on a continuous basis. The social and interactive nature of learning is furthermore emphasized by the intentional and incidental interaction between the context, primary educator and learner. Knowledge of their children's development and learning will contribute to the effectiveness of primary educators' support and will ensure that this support is effected within the leamer's zone of proximal development.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die rol wat primêre opvoeders in die ondersteuning van hulle kinders binne skoolverband speel, is dikwels in die verlede nagelaat. Die verantwoordelikheid vir die ondersteuning van hulle kinders binne skoolverband is aan onderwysers oorgelaat, of daar is aangeneem dat die primêre opvoeder nie spesialiskennis het rue en dat die leerondersteuning dus eerder geïsoleerd by die skool moet plaasvind. Binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks is primêre opvoeders dikwels semigeletterd, ongeletterd of sosio-ekonomies benadeel en beskou hulself as onbekwaam om 'n rol te vervul in leerders se ondersteuning binne skoolverband Ten spyte hiervan kom die belangrike rol en invloed wat die primêre opvoeder op die leerder se leerondersteuning het al hoe sterker na vore. Navorsing wys daarop dat primêre opvoeders 'n sleutelrol III die kognitiewe ontwikkeling, taalverwerwing, geletterheid, affektiewe en normatiewe ontwikkeling van die leerder vervul. Van geboorte af word die omgewing en eksterne stimuli aan die leerder gemedieer en word hy of sy deur die primêre opvoeder ondersteun in sy ofhaar totale ontwikkeling. Deur die sekuriteit wat die primêre opvoeder en die gesinsisteem verskaf, ontwikkel die leerder byvoorbeeld 'n sin van selfwaarde en word sosiale gedrag deur modellering aangeleer Die vraag blyegter hoe primêre opvoeders bemagtig kan word om leerders binne die gesinsisteem te ondersteun om potensiële leerhindernisse te vermy en hul leerpotensiaal te aktualiseer. Daar is tans 'n leemte in die literatuur wat betref 'n studie na nie-formele leerondersteuning en leerondersteuning-strategieë, wat gerig is op die eise wat Uitkomsgebaseerde Onderwys stel, en wat ook inligting verskaf aangaande die profiel van leerders in die Grondslagfase. Die doel van die studie is om 'n doelgerigte ondersoek na rue-formele leerondersteuning in te stel sodat primêre opvoeders bemagtig kan word om hul kinders se leer doelgerig te kan ondersteun. Die studie hou implikasies in vir die wyses waarop primêre opvoeders met leerders se leerontwikkeling omgaan, die aktualisering van die leerder se leerpotensiaal in beide die skool- en gesinsisteem, asook vir die kwaliteit van kommunikasie tussen primêre opvoeders, leerders en onderwysers. Die navorsing is gedoen vanuit 'n ekosistemiese en konstruktivistiese perspektief. Sonder die erkenning van die dinamiese en wedersydse interaksie van die sisteme waarbinne die leerder beweeg sal enige leerondersteuning, hetsy binne die skoolof gesinsisteem, reduksionisties en oneffektief bly. Die stigting van 'n triargiese vennootskap tussen die leerder, primêre opvoeder en onderwyser dra by tot die vestiging van 'n onbelemmerde kommunikasiesisteem wat goeie sistemiese interaksie sal bevorder. Elke individu beskik verder oor 'n unieke ervaringsraamwerk wat die wyse waarmee hy of sy met die sosiale konteks en leersituasie omgaan, beïnvloed. Hierdie eiesoortige verwysingsraamwerk moet erken word en by die onderrig-en leersituasie betrek word ten einde die leerervaring vir die leerder sinvol te maak. Die navorsingsmetodologie is binne 'n kwalitatiewe raamwerk beplan en uitgevoer deur middel van 'n induktiewe werkswyse. Data-inwinning is gedoen deur 'n oop vraelys wat gerig is aan vier onderwysers, kort biografiese vraelyste gerig aan primêre opvoeders en twee fokusgroeponderhoude met tien primêre opvoeders. Die data is deurlopend geïnterpreteer met inagneming van die deelnemers se eie perspektiewe, asook die konstruktivistiese en ekosistemiese grondslag van die studie. Die data is weergee deur 'n ryk en gedetailleerde beskrywing van die deelnemers se insette. Die volledigheid van hierdie beskrywing is gekontroleer deur transkripsies en veldnotas. Hierdie beskrywing van die data, asook die literatuuroorsig, het die basis gevorm waarvolgens kategorieë, temas en subtemas geïdentifiseer is. Die kategorieë en temas het daaropvolgend die grondslag gevorm waarvolgens die data geïnterpreteer en gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings gemaak is. Die gevolgtrekkings het die belangrikheid van die bemagtiging van primêre opvoeders om leerders binne skoolverband te ondersteun bevestig. Hierdie bemagtiging sluit aan by die bedoeling van die Suid-Afrikaanse Skolewet, 1996 (Wet 84 van 1996). Primêre opvoeders beskik reeds oor die vaardighede om leerders binne skoolverband te ondersteun, hierdie vaardighede moet egter verder ontwikkel en ondersteun word. Hulle behoort bewus gemaak te word van hierdie bestaande vaardighede, asook gemotiveer te word om dit op deurlopende basis te benut. Die sosiale en interaktiewe aard van leer word beklemtoon deur die intensionele en insidentele interaksie tussen die konteks, primêre opvoeder en leerder. Kennis van hul kinders se ontwikkeling en leer sal bydra tot die effektiwiteit van primêre opvoeders se ondersteuning en die aansluiting van die ondersteuning by leerders se sone van proksimale ontwikkeling, bevorder.

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