Die verband tussen stadium van morele ontwikkeling en lokus van kontrole by 'n groep Afrikaanssprekende adolessente

Swart, Bert (2004-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: According to Hurlock ( in Louw, Gerdes & Meyer, 1985), traditional society has a larger number of prescribed values and rules of behaviour than is the case in modern society. In modern society the onus rests on the individual who is expected to direct his behaviour in accordance with the values of his choice. The individual has to accept responsibility for determining his own values. This may create problems for the adolescent because he will be confronted by a wide range of diverse values without the benefit of guidelines or rules to tell him which of those values should be accepted and which should rather be avoided. Against this background it becomes clear why the internalization of moral values, as they develop, is of utmost importance to the adolescent. In this study an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship between stage of moral development and locus of control within a group of Afrikaans-speaking adolescents. The study has further attempted to determine the influence of intellectual ability on the relationship between stage of moral development and locus of control. Males and females were also compared with respect to moral development and locus of control. The sample comprised 193 white, Afrikaans-speaking grade eleven pupils. Seventy-six were boys and 117 girls. The subjects were selected from three high schools situated in three different towns and/or cities. All the subjects came from complete families in which both biological parents were present. Taylor's Reasons for Action Questionnaire (1978) was used to determine the stage of moral development. This questionnaire is based on Lawrence Kohlberg's six stages of moral development which in itself developed from the cognitive-developmental structural approach to moral development. The Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Questionnaire was used to measure the level of locus of control. Intelligence test scores, as measured by the New South African Group Test, were obtained from the E119 records at the various schools. The responses to a biographical questionnaire were used to facilitate the demarcation of the sample. The results of the study indicated that on average the sample as a whole, functions on a conventional moral level. A significantly negative correlation (r(193) = -,28; P < ,001) was found between locus of control and level of moral developement. This indicates that within this group of Afrikaans-speaking adolescents an internal locus of control is associated with a higher level of moral development whilst and external locus of control is associated with a lower level of moral development. In this study intelligence had little or no influence on the relationship between level of moral development and locus of control. This supports the view of Kohlberg (1969) that there is a curved line relationship between the level of moral judgement and intellectual ability. Finally it may be said with a 95% degree of certainty, that there is a significant gender difference in respect of the construct of moral development. The girls used in this sample displayed a more developed level of moral development than the boys.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In tradisionele samelewings is daar, volgens Hurlock (aangehaal in Louw, Gerdes & Meyer, 1985), meer waardes en reëls vir gedrag voorgeskryf as in die moderne samelewing. In die moderne samelewing rus die onus op die individu om sy gedrag volgens die waardes van sy keuse in te rig. Hierdie verantwoordelikheid wat op die individu rus om self sy waardes te bepaal, kan vir die adolessent probleme skep aangesien hy deur 'n groot verskeidenheid waardes konfronteer word sonder riglyne of reëls oor watter waardes aanvaar en watter liefs vermy moet word. Teen hierdie agtergrond is dit duidelik waarom die internalisering van morele waardes, soos dit ontwikkel, van uiterste belang is vir die adolessent. Die onderhawige studie poog om die verband tussen die stadium van morele ontwikkeling en lokus van kontrole by 'n groep Afrikaanssprekende adolessente te ondersoek. Verder is probeer om die invloed van intellektuele vermoë op die verband tussen die stadium van morele ontwikkeling en lokus van kontrole te ondersoek. Laastens is die geslagte met mekaar vergelyk ten opsigte van die twee konstrukte, naamlik stadium van morele ontwikkeling en lokus van kontrole. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 193 blanke Afrikaanssprekende graad 11 leerlinge. Hiervan was 76 seuns en 117 meisies. Die toetslinge was afkomstig uit drie hoërskole wat in drie verskillende dorpe en/of stede geleë is. Die toetslinge het uit volledige gesinne gekom, dit wil sê, gesinne waar beide die biologiese ouers nog teenwoordig was in die huishouding. Die Redes vir Optrede Vraelys van Taylor (1978) is gebruik om die stadium van morele ontwikkeling vas te stel. Hierdie vraelys is gebaseer op Lawrence Kohlberg se ses stadia van morele ontwikkeling wat ontstaan het vanuit die kognitief-ontwikkelende strukturele benadering van morele ontwikkeling. Die Rotter Interne-Eksterne Lokus van Kontrole Vraelys is gebruik om die vlak van lokus van kontrole te bepaal. Verstandtoetstellings, soos gemeet deur die Nuwe Suid- Afrikaanse Groeptoets, is vanaf die E119-vorms by die onderskeie skole verkry. Die response op "n biografiese vraelys is benut ten einde die steekproef effektief at te baken. Die resultate van die ondersoek toon dat die totale steekproef wat gemiddeldes betref, op 'n konvensionele morele vlak redeneer. Daar is "n beduidende negatiewe verband r(193) = -,28; p< ,001) tussen lokus van kontrole en vlak van morele ontwikkeling gevind. Dit dui daarop dat, by hierdie groep Afrikaanssprekende adolessente, "n interne lokus van kontrole saamgaan met "n hoër vlak van morele ontwikkeling en "n eksterne lokus van kontrole met "n laer vlak van morele ontwikkeling saamgaan. In hierdie studie het intellektuele vermoë ook weinig tot geen invloed op die verband tussen vlak van morele ontwikkeling en lokus van kontrole gehad nie. Die bevinding ondersteun Kohlberg (1969) se siening dat die verband tussen vlak van morele oordeel en intellektuele vermoë kromlynig is. Laastens kan daar met 95% sekerheid gesê word dat die geslagte beduidend van mekaar verskil ten opsigte van die konstruk morele ontwikkeling. Dit blyk dat die meisies in hierdie steekproef moreel verder ontwikkel het as die seuns.

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