Characterisation of pathogens associated with trunk diseases of grapevines

Van Niekerk, Jan Marthinus (2004-04)

Thesis (MScAgric )--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In an attempt to combat some of the pathogens that are associated with trunk diseases and disorders of grapevines, research in this thesis focused on the taxonomy and pathological aspects of Coniellai/Pilidiella, Botryosphaeria and Phomopsis spp. Previously, conidial pigmentation was used to separate Pilidiella from Coniella. Recently, however, the two genera have been regarded as synonymous, with the older name, Coniella, having priority. The most important species in the Coniellai/Pilidiella complex of grapevines is C. diplodiella (Speg.) Petr. & Syd., the causal organism of white rot of grapevines. Previous studies found it difficult to distinguish between C. diplodiella and C. fragariae (Oudem.) B. Sutton, which is known to occur in soil and caused leaf diseases of Fragaria and Eucalyptus. Both these species have previously been reported from South Africa. None of the reports on C. diplodiella could be scientifically substantiated; therefore it is still a quarantine organism. However, this status has been questioned. Based on sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS 1, ITS 2), 5.8S gene, large subunit (LSU) and elongation factor 1- α gene (EF l- α) from the type species of Pilidiella and Coniella, Coniella was separated from Pilidiella, with the majority of taxa residing in Pilidiella. Pilidiella is characterised by species with hyaline to pale brown conidia (avg. length: width >1.5), with Coniella having dark brown conidia (avg. length: width ≤1.5). Pilidiella diplodiella, previously C. diplodiella, causal organism of white rot of grapevines, was shown to be an older name for C. petrakii. This fungus is present in South Africa and is therefore no longer of quarantine importance. Based on analyses of the histone (H3) gene sequences of isolates in the P. diplodiella species complex, P. diplodiella was separated from a newly described species, P. diplodiopsis. A new species, P. eucalyptorum, is proposed for isolates formerly treated as C. fragariae, associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus spp. This species clustered basal to Pilidiella, and may represent yet a third genus within this complex. Pilidiella destruens was newly described as anamorph of Schizoparme destruens, which is associated with twig dieback of Eucalyptus spp. in Hawaii. The genus Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not. are known to be cosmopolitan, with broad host ranges and geographical distributions. Several saprotrophic species have been reported from grapevines, while others are severe pathogens of this host. These species include B. dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. & De Not., B. parva Pennycook & Samuels, B. obtusa (Schwein.) Shoemaker, B. stevensii Shoemaker, B. lutea A.J.L. Phillips and B. ribis Grossenb. & Duggar. Species reported from South Africa as grapevine pathogens are B. obtusa, B. dothidea, B. ribis and B. vitis (Schulzer) Sacco. In the present study, morphological, DNA sequence data (ITS 1, 5.8S, ITS 2 and EFI-α) and pathological data were used to distinguish 11 Botryosphaeria spp. associated with grapevines from South Africa and other parts of the world. Botryosphaeria australis, B. lutea, B. obtusa, B. parva, B. rhodina and a Diplodia sp. were confirmed from grapevines in South Africa, while Diplodia porosum, Fusicoccum viticlavatum and F. vitifusiforme were described as new species. Although isolates of B. dothidea and B. stevensii were confirmed from grapevines in Portugal, neither of these species, nor B. ribis, were isolated in this study. All grapevine isolates from Portugal, formerly presumed to be B. rib is, are identified as B. parva based on EF1-α sequence data. Artificial inoculations on grapevine shoots showed that B. australis, B. parva, B. ribis and B. stevensii are more virulent than the other species studied. The Diplodia sp. collected from grapevine canes was identified as morphologically similar, but phylogenetically distinct from D. sarmentorum, while D. sarmentorum was confirmed as anamorph of Otthia spiraeae, the type species of the genus Otthia (Botryosphaeriaceae). A culture identified as O. spiraeae clustered within Botryosphaeria, and is thus regarded as a probable synonym. These findings confirm earlier suggestions that the generic concept of Botryosphaeria should be expanded to include genera with septate ascospores and Diplodia anamorphs. The genus Phomopsis (Sacc.) Bubak contains many species that are plant pathogenic or saprotrophic. Ten species are known from grapevines. However, only two have been confirmed as being pathogenic, namely P. viticola (Sacc.) Sacc., causal organism of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot and P. vitimegaspora Kuo & Leu (teleomorph Diaporthe kyushuensis Kajitani & Kanem.), causal organism of swelling arm disease of grapevines. P. amygdali (Delacr.) 1.1. Tuset & M.T. Portilla, a known pathogen from Prunus sp., was shown to be a possible pathogen of grapevines in a previous study. D. perjuncta Niessl. causes bleaching of dormant canes only and is therefore of little importance as a grapevine pathogen. Recently a number of Phomopsis isolates were obtained from grapevines in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Isolations were made from Phomopsis-like symptoms, pruning wounds and asymptomatic nursery plants. These isolates showed great variation in morphology and cultural characteristics. Earlier taxonomic treatments of Phomopsis, based species identification on host specificity, cultural characteristics and morphology. Recent studies have indicated that these characteristics can no longer be used to distinguish species of Phomopsis due to wide host ranges and morphological plasticity of some species. The use of anamorph/teleomorph relationships in species identification is also untenable, since Diaporthe teleomorphs have only been described for approximately 20% of the known Phomopsis species. In this study morphological data, DNA sequences (ITS-I, 5.8S, ITS-2) and pathogenicity data were combined to distinguish Phomopsis spp. from grapevines. Fifteen species of Phomopsis were delineated by phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence data. Diaporthe helianthi, a sunflower pathogen, was reported from grapevines for the first time, with a further six, unknown species also distinguished. Three different clades contained isolates previously identified as D. perjuncta. Based on type studies, it appeared that the name D. viticola was available for collections from Portugal and Germany, a new species, D. australafricana, was proposed for South African and Australian isolates, formerly treated as D. perjuncta or D. viticola. An epitype specimen and culture were designated for D. perjuncta. This species was distinguished from D. viticola and D. australafricana based on morphology and DNA phylogeny. Artificial inoculations of green grapevine shoots indicated that, of the species tested, P. amygdali, a known pathogen of peaches in the USA, and P. viticola were the most virulent.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In 'n poging om sommige patogene geassosieer met stamsiektes en syndrome, te beveg, het die navorsing in die tesis gefokus op die taksonomie en patologiese aspekte van ConiellaiPilidiella, Botryosphaeria en Phomopsis spp Voorheen is konidium pigmentasie gebruik om Pilidiella (hialien tot ligbruin konidia) van Coniella (donkerbruin konidia) te skei. Onlangs is hierdie twee genera egter as sinoniem beskou met die ouer naam, Coniella, wat voorkeur gekry het. Die belangrikste spesies in die ConiellaiPilidiella kompleks van wingerd is C. diplodiella (Speg.) Petr. & Syd., die veroorsakende organisme van witvrot van wingerd. Vorige studies het dit moeilik gevind om te onderskei tussen C. diplodiella en C. fragariae (Oudem.) B. Sutton, wat bekend is dat dit in grond voorkom en ook blaarsiektes van Fragaria en Eucalyptus veroorsaak. Beide hierdie spesies is tevore in Suid-Afrika aangemeld. Geen van die aanmeldings van C. diplodiella is egter wetenskaplik bewys nie en daarom is dit steeds 'n kwarantyn organisme. Hierdie kwarantyn status is egter bevraagteken. Op grond van DNS volgordes van die interne getranskribeerde spasieerder area ("ITS 1", "ITS2"), die 5.8S rRNS geen, die groot ribosomale subeenheid ("LSU") en die verlengingsfaktor 1-α geen ("EF-lα") van die tipe spesies van Pilidiella en Coniella, is Coniella van Pilidiella geskei, met die meerderheid van die taxa wat binne Pilidiella resorteer. Pilidiella word gekarakteriseer deur spesies met hialien tot ligbruin konidia (gem. lengte: breedte > 1.5), in teenstelling met die donkerbruin konidia van Coniella (gem. lengte: breedte ≤ 1.5). Daar is verder bewys dat Pilidiella diplodiella, voorheen C. diplodiella, veroorsakende organisme van witvrot van wingerd, die ouer naam van C. petrakii is. Hierdie swam is teenwoordig in Suid-Afrika en P. diplodiella is dus nie meer van kwarantyn belang nie. Op grond van analises van die histoon (H3) volgordes van spesies in die P. diplodiella spesies kompleks, is P. diplodiella geskei van 'n nuut beskryfde spesie, P. diplodiopsis. 'n Nuwe spesie, P. eucalyptorum, is ook voorgestel vir isolate voorheen beskou as C. fragariae, geassosieer met blaarvlek van Eucalyptus spp. Hierdie spesie het basaal van Pilidiella gegroepeer en mag moontlik nog 'n derde genus binne hierdie kompleks verteenwoordig. Pilidiella destruens is nuut as anamorf van Schizoparme destruens beskryf, wat geassosieer word met loot terugsterwing van Eucalyptus spp. in Hawaii. Die genus Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not. is bekend as kosmopolitaans met 'n wye gasheerreeks en geografiese verspreiding. Verskeie saprofitiese spesies is aangemeld vanaf wingerd, terwyl ander ernstige patogene van hierdie gasheer is. Laasgenoemde spesies sluit in B. dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. & De Not., B. parva Pennycook & Samuels, B. obtusa (Schwein.) Shoemaker, B. stevensii Shoemaker, B. lutea A.1.L. Phillips en B. ribis Grossenb. & Duggar. Spesies aangemeld in Suid-Afrika as wingerdpatogene, is B. obtusa, B. dothidea, B. ribis en B. vitis (Schulzer) Sacco In hierdie studie is morfologiese, DNS volgorde data ("ITSl", "ITS2", 5.8S en "EF-Iα") en plantpatologiese data gebruik om II Botryosphaeria spesies, geassosieer met wingerde in Suid-Afrika en verskeie ander werelddele, te onderskei. Botryosphaeria australis, B. lutea, B. obtusa, B. parva, B. rhodina en 'n Diplodia sp. is bevestig van wingerde in Suid-Afrika, terwyl Diplodia porosum, Fusicoccum viticlavatum en F. vitifusiforme as nuwe spesies beskryf is. AIhoewel isolate van B. dothidea en B. stevensii bevestig is van wingerde in Portugal, is geen van hierdie spesies en ook nie B. ribis geïsoleer nie. AIle isolate vanaf wingerd in Portugal, voorheen beskou as B. rib is, is as B. parva op grond van hul "EF-lα" volgordes geïdentifiseer. Uit kunsmatige isolasies gemaak op wingerdlote is die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat B. australis, B. parva, B. ribis en B. stevensii meer virulent is as die ander spesies wat bestudeer is. Die Diplodia sp. versamel vanaf wingerdlote is geïdentifiseer as morfologies eenders, maar filogeneties verskillend van D. sarmentorum, terwyl D. sarmentorum bevestig is as die anamorf van Otthia spiraeae, die tipe spesie van die genus Otthia (Botryosphaeriaceae). 'n Kultuur wat as 0. spiraeae geïdentifiseer is, het binne Botryosphaeria gegroepeer, en word dus as 'n moontlike sinoniem beskou. Hierdie bevindinge bevestig vroeëre voorstelle dat die generiese konsep van Botryosphaeria uitgebrei behoort te word om genera met gesepteerde askospore en Diplodia anamorwe in te sluit. Die genus Phomopsis (Sacc.) Bubak bevat verskeie spesies wat as of plantpatogenies, of saprofities, beskryf is. Tien spesies is bekend op wingerd. Slegs twee is as patogenies bevestig, naamlik P. viticola (Sacc.) Sacc., veroorsakende organisme van loot-en-blaarvlek ("streepvlek") en P. vitimegaspora Kuo & Leu (teleomorf Diaporthe kyushuensis Kajitani & Kanem.), veroorsakende organisme van geswelde arm van wingerd. In 'n vroeëre studie is bevind dat P. amygdali (Delacr.) 1.1. Tuset & M.T. Portilla, 'n bekende patogeen van Prunus sp., moontlik ook 'n patogeen van wingerd mag wees. D. perjuncta Niessl. veroorsaak egter net verbleiking van dormante lote en is dus van min belang as 'n wingerd patogeen. Gedurende die afgelope twee jaar is verskeie Phomopsis isolate van wingerde in die Wes-Kaap provinsie van Suid-Afrika verkry. Isolasies is gemaak van Phomopsis-agtige simptome, snoeiwonde en asimptomatiese kwekeryplante. Die isolate verkry uit hierdie materiaal het groot variasie ten opsigte van morfologie en kultuureienskappe getoon. Vroeëre taksonomiese verhandelings van Phomopsis het spesies-identifikasie op gasheerspesifisiteit, kultuureienskappe en morfologie gebasseer. Onlangse studies het egter getoon dat, weens wye gasheerreekse en morfologiese plastisiteit van somnuge spesies, hierdie eienskappe me meer gebruik kan word om Phomopsis spesies te identifiseer nie. Die gebruik van anamorflteleomorf verwantskappe in die identifikasie van Phomopsis spesies ook onbruikbaar omdat Diaporthe teleomorwe vir slegs ongeveer 20% van die bekende Phomopsis spesies beskryf is. Die huidige studie het dus morfologiese data, DNS volgordes ("ITS 1", 5.8S, "ITS2") en patogenisiteitsdata gekombineer ten einde Phomopsis spp. vanaf wingerd te identifiseer. Vyftien Phomopsis spesies is deur die filogenetiese analise van die interne getranskribeerde spasieerder area ("ITS") volgordes geskei. Diaporthe helianthi, 'n bekende patogeen van sonneblomme, is vir die eerste maal op wingerd aangeteken, terwyl 'n verdere ses, tans onbekende spesies van Phomopsis ook geidentifiseer is. Drie verskillende groepe het isolate bevat wat voorheen as D. perjuncta geidentifiseer is. Gebasseer op studies van tipes, het dit voorgekom dat die naam D. viticola beskikbaar is vir isolate uit Portugal en Duitsland. 'n Nuwe spesie, D. australafricana, is voorgestel vir Suid-Afrikaanse en Australiese isolate wat voorheen behandel is as D. perjuncta of D. viticola. 'n Epitipe monster en kultuur is vir D. perjuncta benoem. Hierdie spesie is van D. viticola en D. australafricana onderskei op grond van morfologie en DNS filogenie. Kunsmatige inokulasies van groen wingerdlote het getoon dat P. amygdali, bekende perske patogeen, en P. viticola die mees virulent was.

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