Break and bend verbs in Xitsonga

Malungani, Evelyn Tintswalo (2004-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The break and bend verbs in Xitsonga forms part of the larger verb class of verbs of change of state. Such verbs show two events, i.e. a process and a transition. These verbs have been investigated in Xitsonga with regard to the following properties: the syntactic categories within which they may appear, the levels of representation within lexical semantics and their semantic features. The break verbs in Xitsonga appear in three syntactic categories, i.e. transitive verbs, verbal roots with transitive and intransitive suffixes and ideophones, which may appear as derived verbs with transitive and intransitive suffixes. The bend verbs appear only as transitive or intransitive verbs, but they may have a shadow argument with the phrase [hi NP] which gives rise to instrument-subject alternation. Most of the bend verbs may also appear in structures with inalienable possession. The break verbs have five semantic features: break, split and crack, smash and crush, demolish, tear. The bend verbs have six semantic features: bend, bend or fold, bend or twist, be crooked, lean over, kneel. The break verbs, which may also appear, as ideophones are clear examples of ergative verbs in Xitsonga. Such verbs denote a change of state and they occur as both transitive and intransitive verbs.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die breek- en buigwerkwoorde in Xitsonga vorm deel van die groter klas van werkwoorde, bekend as verandering-van-toestand ('change-of-state') werkwoorde. Hierdie soort werkwoorde vertoon twee tipes gebeure ('events'), naamlik proses en oorgang ('transition'). Hierdie werkwoorde word vir Xitsonga ondersoek met betrekking tot die volgende eienskappe: die sintaktiese kategorieë waarin hulle mag verskyn, die vlakke van representasie in die leksikale semantiek, en die semantiese kenmerke van hierdie werkwoorde. Breekwerkwoorde in Xitsonga verskyn in drie sintaktiese kategorieë, naamlik transitiewe werkwoorde, werkwoordstamme met transitiewe en intransitiewe suffikse, en ideofone, wat as afgeleide werkwoorde met transitiewe en intransitiewe suffikse mag verskyn. Die buigwerkwoorde mag slegs as transitiewe of intransitiewe werkwoorde verskyn, maar hulle mag 'n skadu-argument neem met die frase [hi NP], wat die instrument-subjek alternasie kan realiseer. Die meeste buigwerkwoorde kan ook in strukture verskyn wat onvervreembare besit illustreer. Die breekwerkwoorde het vyf semantiese kenmerke: breek, kloof, kraak, slaan en druk, verwoes en skeur. Die buigwerkwoorde het ses semantiese kenmerke: buig, vou, draai, gebuig wees, oorleen en kniel. Die breekwerkwoorde, kan ook as ergatiewe werkwoorde verskyn in Xitsonga. Sulke werkwoorde dui verandering-van-toestand aan, en hulle mag as beide transitiewe en intransitiewe werkwoorde verskyn.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49872
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