A study to determine the motor proficiency of children between the ages of six and ten years diagnosed with ADHD in the Cape Metropole

Statham, S. B (2004-04)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2004

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been reported to have motor proficiency problems. Few studies have established the extent of these motor problems and few studies investigate both gross and fine motor proficiency. The studies which do investigate motor proficiency, often also include other aspects, for example physical fitness, grip strength or kinaesthesia. It is important to be able to identify motor proficiency deficit in this population group early for appropriate intervention to be as effective as possible. The first step in this process is to identify the areas of motor proficiency deficits experienced by these children. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done. Objective: The main aim of this study was to establish if children with ADHD demonstrate motor proficiency problems. A second aim was to identify in which areas of motor proficiency they have the most problems. Method: A sample of 28 boys and 9 girls (n = 37) children with ADHD, between the ages of six and ten, were identified by the medical practitioners at four school clinics in the Cape Metropole. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to test the children. The demographic and other factors that could have affected the motor proficiency in these children were recorded. Results: The range, mean and standard deviation were calculated for all the subtests and the three composite scores. Eighty-one percent of children scored below the expected norm on the Battery Composite Score (20th percentile) with the difference in age equivalent scores being significantly different (p < 0.01), the Gross Motor Composite Score (20th percentile and p < 0.01) and on the Running Speed and Agility Subtest (p < 0.01), the Balance Subtest (p < 0.01), Strength Subtest (p < 0.01) and the Upper Limb Coordination Subtest (p < 0.01). No significant motor proficiency problems were identified in the Fine Motor Composite Score (35th percentile), the Bilateral Coordination Subtest, the Response Speed Subtest, the Visual motor Subtest or the Visual Motor Control Subtest. Conclusions: These results support the literature in so far as motor proficiency deficits are present in children with ADHD, which in turn supports the need for early identification of these problems.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agergrond: Kinders met Aandag Afleibaarheid Hiperaktiwiteit Sindroom (ADHD) demonstreer probleme met motoriese vaardighede. 'n Paar studies is gedoen om dié bepaalde motoriese vaardighede te bepaal en sommige studies kombineer die ondersoek met ander aspekte van motoriese vaardigheid soos, fiksheid, greep sterkte of kinestesie. Dit is belangrik om die tekortkominge vroeg te identifiseer om effektiewe intervensie so vroeg moontlik te inisieer. Die eerste stap is om die spesifieke vaardighede waarmee hierdie groep kinders probleme ondervind, te identifiseer. Studie: 'n Dwarssnit beskrywende studie is uitgevoer. Doel: Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of kinders met ADHD motoriese probleme het en of daar spesifieke aspekte van motoriese vaardigheid is waar hulle tekortkominge toon. Metodiek: 'n Steekproef van 28 seuns en 9 dogters (n = 37) tussen die ouderdomme van ses tot tien jaar, met ADHD is deur die mediese praktisyns geïdentifiseer, en getoets. Die Bruininks- Oseretsky Toets vir Motoriese Vaardigheid is gebruik. Enige faktore wat motoriese vaardigheid kon beïnvloed is gedokumenteer. Resultate: Die reikwydte, gemiddelde en standaard afwyking is bereken vir al die sub-toetse en die drie saamgestelde tellings. Een en tagtig persent van die kinders het tellings onder die verwagte norm behaal vir die Saamgestelde Telling van die Battery van toetse (20ste persentiel) met die verskil in ouderdomtelling beduidend verskillend (p<O.01).Die Growwe Motoriese Saamgesteldetelling was (20ste persentiel en p<O.01), die Hardloopspoed- en Ratsheidsubtoets (p<O.01), die Balanssubtoets (p<O.01), Kragsubtoets (p<O.01) en die Boonste Ledemaat Koordinasie-subtoets (p<O.01). Geen beduidende tekorte is deur middel van die Saamgestelde Fyn Motoriese Vaardigheidstoetse (3Sste persentiel), die Bilaterale Koordinasiesubtoets, die Reaksiespoed-subtoets, die Visuele Motoriese subtoets of die Visuele Motoriese Beheer-subtoets gevind nie. Gevolgtrekkings: Die resultate ondersteun die bevindinge uit die literatuur rakende die probleme wat kinders met ADHD met motoriese vaadigheid ervaar en ondersteun die behoefte vir vroeë identifisering om effektiewe intervensie so vroeg moontlik te begin.

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