An investigation of soilborne fungi associated with roots and crowns of nursery grapevines

Van Coller, Gerhardus J. (Gerhardus Johannes) (2004-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Soilborne diseases of grapevines represent a complex problem with limited information available, both locally and internationally. Previous research in South Africa indicated that Phytophthora and Pythium spp. were the most widespread and devastating pathogens in grapevine nurseries and vineyards in the Western Cape province. The local grapevine industry is currently expanding; new cultivars, methods and agricultural chemicals are being used which can affect soilborne pathogens. It has therefore become necessary to reassess the status of soilborne pathogens in nurseries, since information in this regard is crucial for the development of disease management practices for the expanding local grapevine industry. Soilborne fungal genera associated with roots and crowns of declining nursery grapevines were assessed in surveys conducted at three different grapevine nurseries in the Western Cape province. Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia spp. were consistently isolated from roots and crowns of declining nursery grapevines. Cylindrocladiella spp. and Phytophthora cinnamomi were infrequently isolated from diseased roots, crowns and soil whereas Pythium spp. were abundant in most of the soils. Results suggest that the status of soilborne fungal pathogens in grapevine nurseries in the Western Cape province has changed over the last 30 years. The DNA phylogeny and pathogenicity of the isolates of Cylindrocladiella were determined. Four species of Cylindrocladiella occur on grapevines in South Africa, namely C. lageniformis, C. parva, C. peruviana, as well as a new species, described in this study as C. viticola, which forms part of the C. infestans species complex. Pathogenicity trials were inconclusive. Ten Fusarium spp. were isolated from roots and crowns of declining nursery grapevines, namely F. acuminatum, F. anthophilum, F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum and F. solani. The dominant species was F. oxysporum, followed by F. proliferatum and F. solani. In pathogenicity trials F. oxysporum and F. solani significantly reduced root volume, root dry mass, length of new shoots, stem diameter and number of leaves, but increased the percentage of chlorotic leaves and root rot severity. Fusarium proliferatum also caused a significant reduction in new shoot growth, number of leaves and increased root rot severity compared to the controls. Fusarium so/ani seems to be more virulent than F. oxysporum, followed by F. pro/iferatum. This is the first report of F. oxysporum, F. pro/iferatum and F. so/ani as pathogens of grapevines in South Africa, and the first report of F. proliferatum as a pathogen of grapevines in the world. Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated at low frequencies from declined grapevines, although present in the rhizosphere soil. It is possible that the extensive use of downy mildew chemicals in grapevine nurseries may protect grapevines from infection by P. cinnamomi. The effect of chemicals used to combat downy mildew on Phytophthora root rot of nursery grapevines was evaluated in a glasshouse. There was very little discernable effect of the chemicals tested relative to the control plants for the parameters measured and it was concluded that the inoculation technique needed refinement. However, plants treated with phosphorous acid tended to be taller and have more leaves, greater stem diameter and root volume than controls or plants treated with the other chemicals. The data obtained in this study are not conclusive, but indicated certain trends that more glasshouse trials and field trials would resolve. Results presented in this thesis indicate that a major shift has occurred in the status of soilborne fungi associated with roots and crowns of grapevines in nurseries in the Western Cape since the 1970s when Phytophthora and Pythium were predominant. The prevalence and role of soilborne fungi need to be determined so that new appropriate disease management strategies can be developed to limit losses in grapevine nurseries and ensure the sustainable production of healthy plants for the grapevine industry.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'N ONDERSOEK NA GRONDGEDRAAGDE SWAMME GEASSOSIEER MET WORTELS EN KRONE VAN WINGERD IN KWEKERYE Grondgedraagde siektes van wingerd is 'n komplekse probleem waaroor min inligting, beide plaaslik en internasionaal, beskikbaar is. Vorige navorsing in Suid-Afrika het aangedui dat swamme van die genera Phytophthora en Pythium die mees algemene en vernietigende grondgedraagde patogene in kwekerye en wingerde in die Wes-Kaap provinsie is. Die plaaslike wingerdbedryf brei huidiglik uit; nuwe kultivars, metodes en landbouchemikalieë word gebruik wat 'n invloed kan hê op grondgedraagde patogene. Gevolglik het dit noodsaaklik geword om die status van grondgedraagde patogene in wingerdkwekerye weer te bepaal, aangesien inligting in hierdie verband noodsaaklik is vir die ontwikkeling van siekte bestuurspraktyke vir die ontwikkelende plaaslike wingerdbedryf. Grondgedraagde swamgenera geassosieer met wortels en krone van terugsterwende wingerd in kwekerye is bepaal in opnames wat by drie verskillende wingerdkwekerye in die Wes-Kaap provinsie uitgevoer is. Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Pythium, en Rhizoctonia spp. is konstant vanuit wortels en krone van terugsterwende wingerdplante in kwekery geïsoleer, Cylindrocladiella spp. en Phytophthora cinnamomi is ongereeld vanuit siek wortels, krone en grond geïsoleer, terwyl Pythium spp. algemeen in meeste gronde voorgekom het. Resultate dui daarop dat die status van grondgedraagde swampatogene in wingerdkwekerye in die Wes- Kaap provinsie oor die laaste 30 jaar verander het. Die DNA filogenie en patogenisiteit van die isolate van Cylindrocladiella is bepaal. Vier spesies van Cylindrocladiella kom voor op wingerd in Suid-Afrika, naamlik C. lageniformis, C. parva, C. peruviana, sowel as 'n nuwe spesie, wat in hierdie studie as C. viticola aangedui is en wat deel is van die C. infestans spesie kompleks. Patogenisiteits proewe was onvoldoende om die patogeniese status van die swam me te bepaal. Tien Fusarium spp. is vanuit wortels en krone van terugsterwende wingerdplante in kwekery geïsoleer, naamlik F. acuminatum, F. anthophilum, F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum en F. solani. Die dominante spesies was F. oxysporum, gevolg deur F. proliferatum en F. solani. In pathogenisteitsproewe het F. oxysporum en F. solani gelei tot 'n betekenisvolle laer wortelvolume, droë massa van wortels, lengte en droë massa van nuwe groei en aantal blare, maar het die persentasie chlorotiese blare en graad van wortelvrot verhoog. Fusarium proliferatum het ook gelei tot 'n betekenisvolle afname in lengte en massa van nuwe groei, aantal blare en 'n verhoogde graad van wortelvrot in vergelyking met die kontrole behandelings. Dit wil voorkom asof Fusarium solani meer virulent is as F. oxysporum, gevolg deur F. proliferatum. Hierdie is die eerste aanmelding van F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum en F. solani as patogene van wingerd in Suid-Afrika, en die eerste aanmelding van F. proliferatum as 'n patogeen van wingerd in die wêreld. Phytophthora cinnamomi is konstant teen lae frekwensies vanuit terugsterwende wingerd in kwekerye geïsoleer, alhoewel dit in risosfeer gronde teenwoordig was. Dit is moontlik dat die ekstensiewe gebruik van chemikalieë teen donsskimmel in wingerdkwekerye die wingerdplante kan beskerm teen infeksie deur P. cinnamomi. Die effek van chemikalieë wat gebruik word teen donsskimmel op Phytophthora wortelverrotting van wingerd in kwekerye, is 'n glashuis geëvalueer. Die chemikalieë wat gestoets is, het vir die gemete parameters, tot baie min onderskeibare effek gelei relatief tot die kontrole plante, en daar is afgelei dat die inokulasie tegniek verbetering benodig. Plante wat met fosforiensuur behandel is, het egter geneig om langer te wees met meer blare, 'n groter stamdeursnee en wortelvolume as kontrole plante of plante behandel met ander chemikalieë. Data verkry vanuit die hierdie studie was onvoldoende, maar sekere neigings is aangedui wat deur verdere glashuis- en veldproewe verklaar sal word. Resultate wat in hierdie tesis weergegee is, het aangedui dat 'n algehele verskuiwing in die status van grondgedraagde swamme geassosieer met wortels en krone van wingerd in kwekerye vanaf die 1970s, toe Phytophthora en Pythium die dominante genera was, plaasgevind het. Die voorkoms en rol van grondgedraagde swamme moet bepaal word, sodat nuwe voldoende siektebestuurspraktyke ontwikkel kan word om verliese in wingerdkwekerye te beperk en sodoende die volhoubare produksie van gesonde plante vir die wingerdbedryf te verseker.

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