A dual circularly polarized single element microstrip patch antenna

Maki, Pamela Ruth (2004-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis discusses the design of a dual circularly polarized single element antenna with special emphasis on achieving a wide bandwidth and high polarization isolation. The aim of the study is to produce an antenna for transmission of colour video signals between a ground station and a low earth orbit satellite. Microstrip patch antennas are suitable for satellite applications because they are light weight, conformal and have a thin profile. However, the antennas' inherent naITOW bandwidth is one of their major drawbacks. The aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna boasts of a much-improved bandwidth over the traditional single layer microstrip antenna and the freedom of using separate substrates for the patch and the feeding network. Hence the designed single element antenna is aperture coupled. To achieve dual circular polarization with good polarization purity, the antenna had a crossed slot aperture with a balanced feed. The feed network was designed on a single layer. The design was executed in two steps using IE3D moment of methods simulation software: design of the radiating part, and design of the feed part. Each part was simulated and optimized on its own before the two were combined, simulated and optimized again. Parameters used in the antenna optimization were: the substrates' thicknesses and dielectric constants, patch and aperture dimensions, and the feed line width and offset. The designed antenna was built and measured. Initial measurements of S-parameters yielded unacceptable results, especially for S22 and S21, and so an investigation into the matter was conducted. That led to the sizes of the feed and reflector planes being extended. Absorbing material was used between the parallel feed and reflector planes because some power was, to a lesser extent, still escaping, due to the fact that the planes were fmite. Measurement results demonstrated reasonable agreement with the simulation. The final antenna had a reflection coefficient of less than -10 dB for the entire operating band of 400 MHz centred on 3 GHz, an isolation of approximately -15 dB in the operating band and a gain of 2 dBi and I dBi for Ports 1 and 2, respectively, at 3 GHz. These results, especially the gain, are influenced by the back radiation and the finite sizes of the feed and reflector planes. It is therefore recommended that an enclosed cavity be used at the back of the antenna and a 'dogbone' aperture be used to minimize back radiation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die tesis omskryf die ontwerp van 'n tweevoudige sikuler gepolariseerde enkel-element antenne met spesiale klem op wye bandwydte en hoe polariserings isolasie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om 'n antenne vir uitsending van kleur video seine tussen 'n grond stasie en 'n omnentelingsatelliet daar te stel. Mikrostrook plakantennes is gepas vir satelliet toepassings weens hulle ligte gewig en dun profiel. Die antenne se gepaardgaande nou bandwydte is egter een van hulle grootste nadele. Die gleufgekoppelde mikrostrook plakantenne gee egter 'n baie beter bandwydte as die tradisionele enkellaag mikrostrook plakantenne asook die vryheid om verskillende substrate vir die plak en die voernetwerkte gebruik. Vir hierdie redes daar besluit om die enkel-element antenne sleufgekoppeld te maak. Om tweevoudige sikuler gepolariseerde met goeie polarisasie suiwerheid te kry, moes 'n kruisvonnige gleuf met 'n gebalanseerde voer ontwerp word. Die voernetwerk was op 'n enkellaag ontwerp. Die ontwerp was in twee fases in IE3D momentmetode simulasie sagteware gedoen: ontwerp van die stralings gedeelte, en ontwerp van die voer gedeelte. Elke gedeelte word afsonderlik gesimuleer en geoptimiseer voordat die twee saam gesimuleer en geoptimiseer word. Parameters wat gebruik word in die antenne optimiseering is: dikte van substraat en dielektriese konstante, plak en gleuf grootes, en voer lynwydte en afwyking. Die ontwerpde antenne is gebou en gemeet. Aanvanklike metings van S-parameters het onaanvaarbare resultate gel ewer, vera I vir S22 en S21,dus is daar besluit om die redes daarvoor te ondersoek. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die voer- en reflector vlakte groter gemmak is. Absorbeer material is tussen die parallel voer- en reflector vlakke gebruik aangesien steeds drywing verloor is weens die eindige vlakke. Meting resultate het taarnlike goed met die simulasies vertoon. Die finale antenne het 'n weerkaatskoeffisient laer as -10 dB getoon vir die volle bandwydte van 400 MHz gesentreerd rondom 3 GHz, 'n isolasie van ongeveer -15 dB in die bandwydte en 'n aanwins van 2 dBi en I dBi vir onderskeidelik Poorte I en 2 by 3 GHz. Hierdie resultate veral die aanwins is deur die straling na agter beinvloed en die eindige grootes van die voer- en reflector vlakke. Dit word om hierdie rede dus voorgestel dat 'n geslote holte aan die rugkant van die antenne gebruik word en dat 'n "dogbone" gleuf gebruik word om straling na agter te minimeer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49818
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