Actual and predicted performance of broiler chickens

Van Niekerk, S. J. (Sarel Johannes) (2004-03)

Assignment (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and profitability of different dietary specifications for broiler chickens slaughtered at 35 days of age. Two trials were performed to evaluate different production parameters. The results of these trials were compared to the predicted results of the EFG broiler model. No carcass data were available for the two trials mentioned above. Therefore, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the broiler model when predicting carcass characteristics, two published data sets (Leeson et al., 1996a) were used. Predicted and actual values were compared, evaluated and discussed. Two broiler trials were performed. In Trial One the amino acid density decreased throughout the range of three treatments from prestarter to finisher diets. In Trial Two the amino acid density decreased only in the four finisher diets. The main difference between predicted and actual results was the response to body weight. The model predicted a steady increase in feed intake to compensate for the lower dietary specifications while body weight did not change significantly. This increase in feed intake seems to be enough to maintain body weight. Trial birds also increased their feed intake as dietary amino acid density decreased, but this compensation seemed to be too low to maintain body weight compared to the control diet. The birds may find it easier to compensate when they have time to adapt to the specification. There is evidence in the literature that birds need seven days to adapt their feed intake to a lower feed specification (Leeson et al., 1996a). It can be speculated that the trial birds started to loose body weight due to a lower amino acid intake in this period. The model seems to adapt feed intake immediately after a change in diet specification. The simulation on literature data lead to the following conclusions: 1) Broilers posses the capacity to increase their feed intake with at least 65% should finisher diets with lower amino acid and energy concentrations be supplied. If only the energy concentration of finisher diets were decreased, the increase in feed intake will be around 30%. (see Table 16 and 23) 2) The accurate prediction of feed intake from the given dietary specification has a major influence on the accuracy of the prediction of broiler performance. 3) Amino acid density and DLys:ME ratio plays a significant role in the control and prediction of feed intake. The EFG broiler model is based on sound scientific principles. The model is comprehensive and can be used for a wide range of environmental and management conditions as well as dietary conditions. The nutritionist can use the model with confidence to assist in practical feed formulation. The actual strength of the model lies in the time and money being saved compared to practical trials.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is om die prestasie en winsgewendheid van braaikuikens te bepaal wanneer voere met verskillende digthede tot op 35 dae gevoer word. Twee eksperimente is uitgevoer om produksieresultate te evalueer. Die resultate van hierdie eksperimente is met die voorspelde waardes uit die EFG simulasie-model vergelyk. Aangesien geen karkasdata vir bogenoemde eksperimente beskikbaar was nie, is twee gepubliseerde datastelle gebruik om hierdie deel van die model te evalueer (Leeson et al., 1996a). Twee braaikuiken eksperimente is uitgevoer. Eksperiment Een het uit drie behandelings bestaan waarvan die aminosuur-konsentrasie vanaf dag een tussen behandelings verskil het. In Eksperiment Twee het die aminosuur-konsentrasie net in die vier afrondingsdiëte verskil. Liggaamsmassa op 35 dae het die grooste verskil tussen voorspelde- en werklike waardes getoon. Beide voorspelde en werklike innames het in albei eksperimente verhoog soos wat aminosuur-konsentrasie afgeneem het. Voorspelde liggaamsmassa het egter konstant gebly terwyl werklike data 'n afname in liggaamsmassa getoon het. Dit bleik dat die voorspelde toename in innames voldoende was om massa te onderhou terwyl die voëls in werklikheid nie genoeg gekompenseer het nie. Leeson et al., 1996a het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat braaikuikens minstens sewe dae benodig om hul voeriname by 'n nuwe spesifikasie aan te pas. So 'n stadige aanpassing kan daartoe lei dat energie- en aminosuur-inname daal indien 'n dieet met laer spesifikasie gevoer. Dit sal daartoe lei dat die kuikens liggaamsmassa verloor. Uit die literatuur simulasies is die volgende afleidings gemaak: 1) Braaikuikens besit die vermoeë om voerinname in die afrondingstyd met minstens 65% te verhoog indien 'n afrondingvoer met laer amiosuur- asook energiekonsentrasie gevoer word. Indien net die energiekonsentrasie verlaag word, sal die inname met sowat 30% verhoog. 2) Die akkurate voorspelling van inname is krities vir die akkurate voorspelling van produksieparameters. 3) Aminosuur-digtheid en DLys:ME speel 'n belangrike rol in die beheer en voorspelling van voerinname by braaikuikens. Die EFG braaikuikenmodel is op suiwer wetenskaplike beginsels geskoei. Die model is omvattend en kan vir 'n wye reeks van omgewings- en bestuurstoestande asook dieet-spesifikasies gebruik word. Die voedingkundige kan die model met vertroue gebruik om met praktiese voerformulering by te staan. Die model kan die formuleerder baie tyd spaar aangesien praktiese eksperimente ingeperk kan word.

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