The longitudinal growth and feeding practices of infants from birth to twelve months

Beukes, Ronel A. (Ronel Annamarie) (2003-12)

Thesis (Mnutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is a silent emergency. WHO estimates that 55% of all child deaths in developing countries are associated with malnutrition. Inadequate dietary intake and disease are the two immediate causes of malnutrition. The underlying causes are household food insecurity, inadequate maternal and child-care and poor water/ sanitation and inadequate health services. Stunting is a major problem in pre-school children in South Africa. This indicates a long term inadequate dietary intake. Furthermore, the initiation of breastfeeding in South Africa is about 90%, and the duration thereof tends to be less than 3 months after birth. A great majority of children in this country consume a diet deficient in energy and of poor nutrient density to meet their micronutrient requirements. The aim of this study was to identify feeding practices of infants that could contribute to the development of malnutrition. METHOD: This was a cohort study with a prospective experimental design. Forty-four of the original 73 mother-infant pairs that were recruited, were interviewed monthly on feeding practices of the infants. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height of the infants) were measured monthly. RESULTS: Weight-for-age Z-scores dropped significantly with age from around 4 months, when weaning had started. Inadequate dietary intake, more specifically weaning practices and breastfeeding practices, were identified as the immediate cause that could contribute to the development of malnutrition in this community. Except for the positive relationship between the level of education of the father and an increase in HAZ over time, growth was not affected by socio-economic and demographic factors in this community. This is probably because of the fact that there were very small differences in socio-economic and demographic factors. CONCLUSION: Weaning and breastfeeding practices should be addressed in all nutrition education programmes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: INLEIDING: Wanvoeding is 'n stil gevaar. Die WGO skat dat daar 'n verband is tussen wanvoeding en ongeveer 55% van alle kindersterftes in ontwikkelende lande. 'n Onvoldoende dieetinname en siekte is die twee onmiddellike oorsake van wanvoeding. Onvoldoende huishoudelike voedselsekuriteit, onvoldoende moeder- en kindsorg en swak sanitasie en watervoorsiening asook onvoldoende gesondheidsorg is die onderliggende oorsake. Dwerggroei is 'n groot probleem in Suid-Afrika onder voorskoolse kinders. Dit dui op 'n langdurige onvoldoende dieetinname. Bydraend hiertoe, is die aanvang van borsvoeding in Suid-Afrika ongeveer 90%, maar die duurte van borsvoeding is minder as 3 maande na geboorte. Die meerderheid van alle kinders in Suid-Afrika se dieet het 'n tekort aan energie en die nutriëntdigtheid van hulle diëte voldoen nie aan hulle daaglikse behoeftes ten opsigte van mikronutriënte nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om voedingspraktyke te identifiseer wat kan bydra tot die ontwikkeling van wanvoeding. METODE: Dit was 'n kohortstudie met 'n prospektiewe eksperimentele ontwerp. Vier-en-veertig van die oorspronklike aanvanklike moeder-babapare wat gewerf is, is maandeliks ondervra met betrekking tot die voedingspraktyke van die baba en antropometriese metimgs (gewig en lengte van die baba) is maandeliks geneem. RESULTATE: Z waardes van gewig vir ouderdom het beduidend gedaal namate die kinders ouer geword het, veral vanaf 4 maande, toe spening begin het. 'n Onvoldoende dieetinname, meer spesifiek spenings- en borsvoedingspraktyke, is geïdentifiseer as die onmiddellike oorsake wat tot die ontwikkeleing van wanvoeding kan bydra in hierdie gemeenskap. Daar was 'n positiewe verband tussen lengtegroei (Z waardes van lengte vir ouderdom) en die vlak van opvoeding van die vader. Groei is nie deur die ander sosio-ekonomiese en demografiese faktore beïnvloed nie, moontlik as gevolg van die klein verskille in sosio-ekonomiese en demografiese eienskappe van die studie populasie. GEVOLGTREKKING: Spenings- en borsvoedingpraktyke behoort aandag te geniet in alle voedingsvoorligtings-programme.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49799
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