The design, implementation and evaluation of a peer group sexuality psycho-education programme for university students

Greeff, Lise-Marie (2003-04)

Thesis (MA) -- Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Health and social problems associated with the high-risk sexual behaviour of young people worldwide gave rise to the priority status accorded to sex education in the past decade. Despite the attention focused on and the goals set for sexual health education, surveys indicate that the AIDS epidemic is still spreading, STD infections are increasing and a growing number of unwanted pregnancies are reported every year. It seems therefore that many young people are not yet able to manage their sexual health effectively and sex educators are confronted with the challenge to provide more effective sexl education interventions. This study attempted to address the need for effective sexuality education for young people by designing, implementing and evaluating a peer group sexuality psycho-education programme targeted at university students. The process of programme development was guided by the phases proposed by the Psycho-education model: Phase 1: Problem-identification. This phase entailed becoming aware of the problem through media attention, social awareness, discussions with members of the community and exploring problems around young people's sexual health through an extensive literature review. Phase 2: Situation Analysis. During this phase the researcher clarified the identified problem by conceptualizing and defining relevant concepts and identifying theoretical frameworks and principles that could be used to address the problem. as well as the Action Research model were identified as useful theories. Phase 3: Development of the programme. The Information-Motivation-Behavioural skills (1MB) model and the Guerney model were used to guide the design of the programme. Phases 4, 5 and 6: Implementation, evaluation and re-evaluation. These interdependent phases entailed three consecutive implementations of the sexuality psycho-education programme. The principles of Action Research were used to guide the implementation and evaluation processes. Evaluation of qualitative data obtained through participatory research after each implementation allowed for continuous adaptation and improvement of the programme. At the end of the third implementation quantitative data was supplemented by quantitative data obtained with a pen-and-paper test-retest method. Quantitative results indicated that the sexuality education programme significantly increased subjects' knowledge regarding sex en sexuality, but did not have a significant impact on attitudes and perceived behavioural skills. There was an indication that clarification of attitudes had been promoted, and that attitudes relating to the use of contraception had positively changed. Furthermore, a significant change in perceived behavioural skills regarding communication about and behaviour for the prevention of HIV/STDs had been achieved. Qualitative evaluation indicated that subjects felt more positive about using condoms and about communicating with their partners about the use of contraceptives. Step 6 and full circle back to step 1: Final Re-evaluation and problem-identification. During this phase the researcher reviewed the outcomes of the intervention. New problems were identified and recommendations made for future continuation. The researcher concluded that the deficits in research methodology, such as a lack of structured qualitative evaluation, hampered effective evaluation of the programme. Further research needs to be conducted to develop appropriate theoretical frameworks and measuringinstruments with which to inform and evaluate the effectiveness of sex education programmes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gesondheids- en maatskaplike probleme wat verband hou met die hoë-risiko seksuele gedrag van jongmense wêreldwyd het daartoe gelei dat seksonderrig gedurende die afgelope dekade voorrang geniet het. Ondanks die toespitsing op seksuele gesondheid, en die doelwitte daarvoor gestel, toon peilings dat die VIGS-epidemie steeds versprei, seksueel-oordraagbare siektes (STDs) toeneem, en 'n groeiende aantalongewenste swangerskappe jaarliks aangemeld word. Dit blyk dus dat 'n groot aantal jongmense nie in staat is om hulle seksuele gesondheid effektief te bestuur nie en seksopvoeders word gekonfronteer met die uitdaging om meer effektiewe seksopvoedingsintervensies te verskaf. Met hierdie studie is onderneem om die behoefte aan doeltreffende seksualiteitsopvoeding vir jongmense aan te spreek, deur die samestelling, toepassing en evaluering van 'n portuurgroep seksualiteit psigo-opleidingsprogram gemik op universiteitstudente. Die proses van programontwikkeling is gelei deur die fases wat voorgestel is deur die Psigo-onderrigmodel: Fase 1: Probleemidentifikasie: Dié fase het kennisname van die probleem behels as gevolg van die aandag daaraan gewy in die media en as gevolg van maatskaplike bewustheid, asook deur bespreking met lede van die gemeenskap en deur ondersoek van probleme in verband met die seksuele welstand van jongmense deur middel van 'n uitgebreide literatuurstudie. Fase 2: Situasieanalise: Gedurende hierdie fase het die navorser die geïdentifiseerde probleem duideliker omskryf deur die relevante konsepte te konseptualiseer en omskryf, en teoretiese raamwerke en beginsels te identifiseer wat gebruik kon word om die probleem aan te pak. Fase 3: Ontwikkeling van die program: Die Informasie-Motivering-Gedragsvaardigheidsmodel (IMG) en die Guernymodel is gebruik as raamwerke vir die ontwerp van die program. Fases 4, 5 en 6: Implementering, evaluasie en her-evaluasie. Hierdie interafhanklike fases het drie opeenvolgende implementerings van die seksualiteit-psigo-opleidingsprogram behels. Die beginsels van Aksienavorsing is toegepas in die implementering- en evaluasieprosesse. Evaluasie van kwalitatiewe data, verkry deur deelnemende navorsing na elke implementering, het deurlopende aanpassing en verbetering van die program moontlik gemaak. Aan die einde van die derde implementering is kwantitatiewe data aangevul deur data wat verkry is deur 'n pen-en-papier toets-hertoets-metode. Stap 6 en terug tot by stap 1: Finale re-evaluasie en probleemidentifikasie. Gedurende hierdie fase het die navorser die resultate van die intervensie ontleed. Nuwe probleme is geïdentifiseer en aanbeveliings vir toekomstige voortsetting is gemaak. Die navorser het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die tekortkominge in die navorsingsmetodologie - byvoorbeeld, 'n gebrek aan gestruktureerde kwalitatiewe evaluering - verhinder het dat effektiewe evaluering van die program kon plaasvind. Verdere navorsing word benodig om toepaslike teoretiese raamwerke en meetinstrumente te ontwikkel wat aangewend kan word om die ontwerp van seksopvoedingsprogramme te rig en die effektief van programme te evalueer.

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