Izincomo phakathi kwesiduna namabhinqa esiXhoseni

Ralarala, Knowledge Monwabisi (2003-03)

Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the speech act of complimenting in Xhosa. The study constitutes of six chapters with respective to execute this aim. Chapter one provides special details regarding the aim of this study, the method that has been followed, and the organisational structure of the study. Chapter two focuses on both speech act and politeness theories. The central notion relates to (a) the acts of locution, (b) illocution and (c) perlocution. These elements of speech acts entail the notion that utterances that are produced by participants in a conversation comprises of (a) the actual sounds and words uttered, and those words and sounds (b) are intended towards the fulfilment of the force or intention behind them and (c) the effect of that force is intended to the hearer. Although there are other related elements, this notion is prominent in this chapter. Chapter three examines speech acts of complimenting in Xhosa along with their responses. This examination is informed by various ideas from respective researchers. For an effective and successful investigation of speech acts, a guideline which serves as a base follows a model of ethnography of communication. Almost all these researchers are putting emphasis on this view. This chapter takes this issue further by exploring the differences in compliments and responses with reference to gender, along with other qualities that have been mentioned. The elements of the responses the principles, their nature, structure and appearance in general conversations with specific reference to complimenting, are other key properties examined in this chapter. Chapter four focuses on the functions of the compliments. For example, almost all the researchers in the field are in agreement that compliments serve to revitalize, establish or create or encourage solidarity. Although there are other functions relating to this speech act, such as replacing other conversational formulas, e.g. greetings, softening criticism, the function of solidarity is perceived to be central. Another area which receives attention is the structural qualities of the compliment, along with syntactic and lexical features. This analysis explores the syntactic categories that relate to this work, together with the formulaic nature of this speech act. In addition, the status and gender of the participants in an interaction, as informed by situations or friends who like to be complimented, are all matters that receive scrutiny in this chapter. Chapter five constitute the central part of the study. The differences in compliments and responses receive attention with the aim of establishing possible difference between compliments given by males and females. Chapter six is the last chapter, it presents the findings and conclusion of the study.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie het as doelstelling die ondersoek van die spraakhandeling van komplimentering in Xhosa. Die tesis beslaan ses hoofstukke wat gestruktureer is om uitvoering te gee aan hierdie doelstelling. Hoofstuk een gee spesifieke besonderhede betreffende die doelstelling van die studie, die metode wat gevolg word, en die organisasie van die studie. Hoofstuk twee fokus op spraakhandelingsteorie en hoflikheidsteorie. Die sentrale konsep hou verband met (a) die handelinge van lokusie, (b) ilokusie en (c) perlokusie. Hierdie elemente van spraakhandelinge behels die begrip dat die uitinge wat deur deelnemers in 'n gesprek geproduseer word bestaan uit (a) die werklike klanke en woorde wat geuiter word, en wat (b) die intensie het om uitdrukking te gee aan die fors daaragter, en (c) die effek is gerig op die hoorder. Hierdie oorweging is sentraal in die hoofstuk. Hoofstuk drie ondersoek die spraakhandeling van komplimentering in Xhosa tesame met die response daarop. Hierdie ondersoek word ingelig deur sieninge van verskillende navorsers. Vir die effektiewe ondersoek van spraakhandelinge, is 'n rigtinggewende basis vanuit die etnografie van kommunikasie nodig. Hierdie hoofstuk ondersoek die verskille in komplimente en die response daarop met betrekking tot gender en ander eienskappe. Die aspekte van die response, hulle beginsels, aard, en struktuur, en die gebruik daarvan in gesprekke wat komplimente bevat, word ondersoek. Hoofstuk vier fokus op die funksies van komplimente. Feitlik al die navorsers in die veld van komplimentering stem saam dat komplimente die doel het om solidariteit te skep of te versterk. Alhoewel daar ander funksies is van komplimentering, bv. die verplasing van gespreksformules, soos groet, kritiek, is die bevestiging van solidariteit sentraal. 'n Ander area wat aandag kry in die hoofstuk, is die strukturele kenmerke van komplimente, insluitende sintaktiese en leksikale kenmerke. Die analises behels 'n ondersoek na die sintaktiese kategorieë wat komplimente realiseer, tesame met die formule-agtige aard van komplimente as spraakhandelinge. Voorts word die status en gender van die gespreksgenote ondersoek. Hoofstuk vyf vorm die sentrale deel van die studie betreffende die bepaling van moontlike gender verskille in komplimente. Hoofstuk ses bied die samevatting en gevolgtrekkings van die studie.

ISISHWANKATHELO: Esi sifundo sikwiphulo lokuphanda ngezenzo zentetho zezincomo. Kuqulunqwe izahluko ezintandathu ezineenjongo ezahlukiyo ukufezekisa eli phulo. Isahluko sokuqala sinika umkhombandlela malunga nenjongo yesifundo, imethodi elandelweyo kananjalo nolwakhiwo zinikwa ingqwalasela. Isahluko sesibini sinika ingqwalasela kwithiyori yezenzo zentetho kananjalo neyentlonelo. Uluvo olungundoqo nolunika umdla kule ngxelo luqulathe izenzo ze (a) ilokhushini, (b) 1- ilokhushini ne (c) nephelokhushini. Ezi zenzo zixhibe ingcamango yokuba intetho eveliswa ngabo bathatha inxaxheba kunxibelelwano iqulathe (a) izandi zolwakhiwo Iwesigama, ukuze eso sigama (b) sijoliswe kwinjongo ethile ekuyimfuneko ukuba iphunyezwe ekugqibeleni (c) ifuthe laloo mpumelelo lingqale lowo kunxityelelwano naye okanye umphulaphuli. Nasekubeni ekhona namanye amasolotya axhagileyo, kodwa le ngcamango iphawuliweyo iphume izandla kwesi sahluko. Isahluko sesithathu siphonononga izenzo zeentetho zezincomo kananjalo neempendulo zazo. Olu phononongo lungqongwe zizimvo zeengcali eziphuma kwiinkalo ngeenkalo. Umkhombandlela osisikhokhelo kwiphulo lophando Iwezenzo zeentetho naziphi na, ukuze lube yimpumelelo kwaye lusulungeke kufuneka luiandeie imodeli okanye umgaqo weethinografi yonxibelelwano phantse bonke aba baphandi babeke umnwe kule ngcamango. Ngokunxusa oku, esi sahluko, xa sihlabela mgama, siphawula ngeyantlukwano yezincomo neempendulo zazo ngesini, nangezinye iimpawu ezikhankanyiweyo. Uqulunkqo Iwemigaqo yokuphendula, ubunjani, ubume nembonakalo yayo entethweni gabalala ngokunxulumene nezincomo ngamanye amasolotya abalulekileyo nanika umdla kwesi sahluko. Isahluko sesine sinika ingqwalaselo kwimisebenzi yesincomo. Umzekelo, phantse zonke ezi ngcali zikweli phulo ziyayingqina nento yokuba izincomo zivuselela , ziyila okanye zikhuthaza umanyano. Nangona ibonakala ikhona eminye imisebenzi ekhankanywayo engqonge esi senzo sentetho njengokuthabatha indawo yezinye zeefomuia zonxulumano, umz. imibulisi, ukuthomakalisa ugxeko-ncomo, olu luvo lomanyano lubonwa njengoluhamba phambili. Enye indima ephononongwayo ziimpawu zolwakhiwo Iwezincomo, kananjalo neempawu zesintaksi neleksikali. Olu hlalutyo lulo oludulisa izigaba zentetho ezibandakanyekayo kananjalo nobufomula besi senzo sentetho. Ukwaleka, iwonga nesini sabo bathabatha inxaxheba kolu nxibelelwano ngokulawulwa ziimeko okanye izihlobo ezikholisa ukunconywa, konke oku yimibandela efumana ukuphicothwa kwesi sahluko. Isahluko sesihlanu siqulathe umongo wesi sifundo. Uhlalutyo Iwezincomo neempendulo zazo lunikwa ingqwalasela ngamehlo abukhali; ngeenjongo zokufumanisa umahluko ongaba ukhona phakathi kwezincomo zamaduna namabhinqa. Isahluko sesithandathu nesokugqibela sinika iziphumo zophando nesiphelo sesi sifundo.

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