Die implikasies van inklusiewe onderwys vir leerders wat verstandelik erg gestremd is

McCallum, Godfrey Hans (2003-12)

Thesis (MEd)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the realization of a new democratic dispensation in South Africa, many changes took place politically, socially, economically and educationally. Before 1994 education in South Africa, was based on a political philosophy namely, apartheid. The provision of education was characterized by a fragmented system of different education departments with discriminatory practices by virtue of language, race, religion and disability. Education for learners with disabilities, which include intellectual disability, was provided by means of separate schools. The new Constitution and subsequent policy documents and legislation, laid the foundation for a uniform system of education in which the rights of the learner with disabilities, was acknowledged. Several recommendations and comments by role players on various policy documents contributed to the publishing of Education White Paper 6 Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System, in July 2001 in which a framework for the implementation of inclusive education is given. Inclusive education is an effort to overcome the barriers within the learner and education system to provide quality education for all learners. This means that learners with severe intellectual disabilities should be accommodated in mainstream schools within mainstream classes. This has serious implications for these learners and various role players who are involved in the education of these learners. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine what implications inclusive education holds for learners with severe intellectual disabilities in an inclusive educational school. Information for this study, was obtained and analyzed by means of a qualitative research design and the methods of collecting data, included a review of literature, open-ended question and structured interviews with various role players. Data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings in this study indicate that teachers in special schools are less positive about inclusive education for learners with intellectual disabilities with specific reference to these learners' complex emotional, physical and educational needs. Other participants indicated that inclusive education for these learners is possible, provided that the barriers caused by the complex nature of their needs, are successfully dealt with. This implies that special attention must be given to the training and support of teachers in an inclusive educational context, as well as the collaboration between role players and the provision of resources.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedert die totstandkoming van 'n nuwe demokratiese bestel in Suid-Afrika, het daar baie veranderinge plaasgevind op politieke, sosiale, maatskaplike, ekonomiese en opvoedkundige gebied. Onderwys in Suid-Afrika, was voor 1994, gebaseer op 'n politieke filosofie naamlik, apartheid. Onderwysvoorsiening was bedryf deur 'n gefragmenteerde stelsel van verskillende onderwysdepartemente, met diskriminerende praktyke op grond van taal, ras, geloof en gestremdheid. Onderwys vir leerders wat gestremd is, verstandelik gestremdheid ingesluit, is gelewer deur middel van aparte spesiale skole. Die nuwe Grondwet en gepaardgaande beleidsdokumente, asook wetgewing, het die basis gelê vir 'n eenvormige onderwysstelsel waarin die regte van die leerder met gestremdhede erken is. Verskeie aanbevelings en kommentaar deur die onderskeie rolspelers op 'n verskeidenheid van beleidsdokumente, het aanleiding gegee tot die publisering van die Onderwys Witskrif 6 (Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System), in Julie 2001. In hierdie Witskrif, word 'n raamwerk vir die implementering van inklusiewe onderwys gegee. Inklusiewe onderwys, is 'n poging om die hindernisse binne die leerder, asook die onderwysstelsel, te oorkom ten einde kwaliteit onderwys aan alle leerders te bied. Dit beteken dat leerders wat verstandelik erg gestremd is, in hoofstroomskole in die hoofstroomklas opgeneem behoort te word. Dit hou ernstige implikasies in, nie net vir die leerder self nie, maar ook vir alle rolspelers wat by hulopvoeding betrokke is. Die doel van hierdie studie is, om te bepaal watter implikasies inklusiewe onderwys vir hierdie leerders inhou indién hulle in 'n inklusiewe onderwysskool opgeneem word. Daar is van 'n kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp gebruik gemaak vir die verkryging en ontleding van inligting vir hierdie studie en data insamelingsmetodes, het 'n literatuuroorsig, oop-vraagstelling en gestruktureerde onderhoude, met 'n verskeidenheid rolspelers ingesluit. Data is geanaliseer met behulp van die konstante vergelykende metode. Bevindinge toon aan, dat veral onderwysers in spesiale skole, minder positief is oor inklusiewe onderwys vir leerders wat verstandelik erg gestremd is, met spesifieke verwysing na hierdie leerders se komplekse emosionele, fisiese en besondere onderwysbehoeftes. Ander deelnemers toon aan, dat inklusiewe onderwys wel vir hierdie leerders haalbaar is mits die hindernisse wat deur die komplekse aard van die leerders se behoeftes veroorsaak word, suksesvol aangespreek word. Dit impliseer dat die opleiding en ondersteuning van onderwysers in 'n inklusiewe onderwyskonteks, asook kollaborasie tussen rolspelers en die voorsiening van bronne, besondere aandag behoort te geniet.

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