Synthesis and application of surfactants containing polymerizable groups

Pienaar, Adele (2002-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The surfmers sodium l l-rnethacryloyloxy undecanyl-I sulfate (MET) and sodium 11- crotonoyloxy undecanyl-I sulfate (CRO) were synthesized and purified. Both contain a sulfonate and polymerizable double bond connected by a hydrocarbon chain. Sodium 4-[ 11- (3-carboxypropionoyloxy)-undecyloxy] benzenesulfonate (PSA-MA) could not be synthesized successfully. MET and CRO were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), elemental analysis (EA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microscopy. MET and CRO displayed a liquid crystalline behavior. MET and CRO were used in combination with poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) to form polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes by common precipitation in water. These complexes were redissolved in methanol and cast in films. The cast films were investigated by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with regard to ordered mesomorphous phases. Due to the destabilization of the lyotropic phase, little order were observed in the complexes. MET was co-polymerized with styrene and methyl methacrylate, in different proportions, by means of free radical polymerization. The co-polymers were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy (Ik) and analyzed by DSC, TGA and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). All analytical techniques showed that the co-polymers were synthesized successfully. TEM indicated a fine, lamellar micro-structure.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die polimeriseerbare sepe, natrium-ll-metakrieloloksi-undekaniel-l sulfaat (MET) en natrium-ll-krotonieloksi-undekaniel-l-sulfaat (CRO) is berei en gesuiwer. Beide bevat 'n sulfonaat en 'n polimeriseerbare dubbelbinding wat deur 'n koolwaterstofketting verbind word. Natrium-4-[11-(3-karboksipropionieloksi)-undekieloksi]-benseensulfaat (PSA-MA) kon nie suksesvol berei word me. MET en CRO is deur middel van kernmagnetieseresonansspektroskopie (KMR), elementele-analise (EA), termiesegravimetriese analise (TOA), kritiese miselkonsentrasie (CMC), differensieelskandeerkalorornetrie (DSC) en mikroskopie gekarakteriseer. Beide MET en CRO het 'n vloei-kristalgedrag getoon. MET en CRO is met poli(diallieldimetielammoniumchloried) gereageer om polyelektrolietseepkompleks te vorm deur presipitasie uit water. Die komplekse is in metanol opgelos en films daarvan gemaak. Die films is deur wyehoek X-straal diffraksie (WAXS) en kleinhoek X-straaldiffraksie (SAXS) ondersoek om geordende mesomorfiese fases te ondersoek. As gevolg van destabilisasie van die liotropiese fase is min orde in die komplekse gevind. MET is met stireen en metielmetakrilaat deur middel van vryeradikaalpolymerisasie gekopolimeriseer. Die kopolimere is deur middel van KMR- en infrarooispektroskopie (IR), DSC, TOA en gelpermeasiechromotagrafie (OPC) ondersoek. Al hierdie analitiese metodes het die suksesvolle sintese van die kopolimere bewys. Transmissie-elektronmikroskopie het die teenwoordigheid van 'n fyn, laminere mikro-struktuur bewys.

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