Effektiewe klankopnames vir enkelkamera-televisieverslaggewing

Human, J. F. (2000-12)

Thesis (MPhil) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2000.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The most neglected element in television reporting is the sound track. The problem is illustrated by the fact that there are currently no specialised textbooks, or training courses, on sound recording for television reporting, anywhere in the world. Textbooks that deal with television reporting dedicate very little space to sound recordings. With the growing competition in television news, news teams are increasingly becoming smaller. It is common practice these days to have a news team consisting of only a cameraperson and a reporter. The cameraperson is also responsible for the sound. Two television stations, namely NYl in New York and Channel One Television in England, have already dispensed with the cameraperson and send out only a reporter. This dissertation addresses the above-mentioned problem by doing research on the sound equipment, recording techniques and production techniques that are useful for effective sound recordings during single camera television reporting. Chapter two explains the functions of the different departments in a television station, as well as the duties of the staff. Chapter three explains basic television principles, terminology and equipment that the sound person uses daily and needs to understand to perform his work optimally. Chapterfour gives the basic terms that are needed to follow a conversation on sound recording. Terms like decibel, stereo and digital sound are explained. The chapter also covers basic electricity and sound equipment. Chapter five covers microphones under three headings, namely: electrical characteristics, acoustic characteristics and microphone design. The chapter also covers associated equipment, explains the sound facilities on video cameras and gives a list of possible sound equipment that can be used during a production. Chapter six covers sound recordings, principles and techniques under the following headings: • Perspective and boom swinging, which deals with sound perspective and boom swinging. • Rigging of cables, which gives practical tips for laying cables inside and outside buildings. • Recording principles, which gives practical tips on sound recordings. • Interviews, which includes recording tips for television interviews and reporting. • Reporting, which covers reporting, media conferences and public events. • Commentary recordings, which deals with the preparation and recording of voice over. • Music recordings, which deals with instruments and bands, and suggests microphone positions. • Telephone lines, which covers the use of telephone lines for reporting. • Location reconnaissance, which gives practical tips on pre-production planning. • Guidelines for sound persons during productions, which concludes the chapter and the dissertation with practical tips on behaviour during local, foreign and/or dangerous productions.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die veranderlike wat die meeste afgeskeep word in televisieverslaggewing, is die klankbaan. Die probleem word onderstreep deur die feit dat daar wêreldwyd tans geen gespesialiseerde handboeke of opleidingskursusse bestaan wat oor klankopnames vir televisieverslaggewing handel nie. Handboeke wat handeloor televisieverslaggewing wy ook baie min ruimte aan klankopnames. Met die groeiende kompetisie in televisienuus raak nuusspanne toenemend kleiner. Dit is reeds algemene praktyk dat die nuusspan slegs uit 'n kamerapersoon en 'n verslaggewer bestaan. Die kamerapersoon moet dus ook die klankopnames doen. Twee televisiestasies, naamlik NYl in New York en Channel One Television in Engeland, het reeds die kamerapersoon uitgeskakel en stuur slegs 'n verslaggewer uit. Hierdie verhandeling spreek bogenoemde probleem aan deur navorsing te doen oor die klanktoerusting, opnametegnieke en produksietegnieke wat nuttig is vir effektiewe klankopnames tydens enkelkameratelevisieverslaggewing. Hoofstuk twee verduidelik die funksies van die verskillende departemente in 'n televisiestasie sowel as die pligte van die personeel. Hoofstuk drie verduidelik basiese televisiebeginsels, -terminologie en -toerusting wat die klankpersoon daagliks mee werk en dus moet verstaan om sy werk optimaal te verrig. Hoofstuk vier gee die basiese terme wat nodig is om 'n gesprek oor klankopnames te volg. Begrippe soos desibel, stereo en digitale klank word verduidelik. Die hoofstuk behandelook basiese elektriese beginsels en klanktoerusting. Hoofstuk vyf bespreek mikrofone onder drie indelings naamlik: elektriese eienskappe, akoestiese eienskappe en mikrofoonontwerp. Die hoofstuk dek ook aanverwante toerusting, verduidelik die klankfasiliteite op videokameras en gee 'n lys van klanktoerusting wat tydens produksies gebruik kan word. Hoofstuk ses is die belangrikste en bespreek klankopnames, beginsels en tegnieke onder die volgende opskrifte: • Perspektief en boomhantering, waaronder klankperspektief en boomhantering behandel word. • Lê van kabels, wat praktiese wenke gee vir die lê van kabels binne en buite geboue. • Opnamebeginsels, wat praktiese wenke gee in verband met klankopnames. • Onderhoude, wat opnamewenke gee in verband met televisieonderhoude en verslaggewing. • Verslaggewing, wat verslaggewing, nuuskonferensies en openbare geleenthede dek. • Kommentaaropnames, wat handeloor die voorbereiding vir, en opneem van kommentaar. • Musiekopnames, wat musiekinstrumente en orkeste bespreek en mikrofoonposisies voorstel. • Telefoonlyne, waaronder die gebruik van telefoonlyne vir verslaggewing bespreek word. • Terreinverkenning, wat praktiese riglyne gee vir voorproduksie-ondersoeke. • Riglyne vir klankpersone tydens produksies, wat die hoofstuk en die studie afsluit met praktiese wenke vir gedrag tydens plaaslike, buitelandse en/of gevaarlike produksies.

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