The effects of terrorism as a form of socio-political instability on tourism governance : a study of the July 2005 London Bombings

Storme, Evelien (Evelien Geertrui Andre) (2007-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis sets out to explore the impact of the July 2005 bombings in London on the relationship between various levels of government, the business community and organisations in the public sector, in their capacity as role players in tourism governance. The particular focus is motivated by the observation that responses by these groups to a tourism crisis may lead to a form of 'joined-up' government. This means that the activities and interests of all parties involved are aligned by relationships characterized by high levels of cooperation and coordination. The 2001 crises in the tourism sector caused by Foot and Mouth Disease and 9/11 functioned as the initial drivers behind this process in the United Kingdom, and the impact of the more recent July bombings further contributed to this trend. The further strengthening of these relationships might be the most effective way in dealing with the effects of tourism crises. Therefore the analysis of the impact of the July bombings on the quality and the nature of the relationships amongst the parties in tourism governance is important to increase the sector's preparedness and its capability to monitor and respond the impacts of possible future attacks. The ongoing and political nature of the terrorism threat, as well as the current trend of devolution of governments sets the overall background for the study. This study is primarily qualitative in nature. Data was gathered from secondary literature, government documents, media reports and personal communication with prominent representatives from all parties covered in the study. Questionnaire responses and interviews were conducted during July and September 2007. The network paradigm, used as an analytical framework in this study, provides the stepping stones to the conclusion that the July bombings had an asymmetrical effect on the horizontal and vertical networks between the bodies. The effects of the July bombings on the sub-national level of tourism governance were the greatest, with local and regional government agencies consolidating their powers. It was found that the tourism industry and organisations in the public sector demonstrate that stronger partnerships within and between them have a beneficial impact on their relationship with local and regional levels of government. The network paradigm was found to be a successful analytical tool for tourism studies with an interest in terrorism, political instability or another significant variable that may challenge the prosperity of tourism.

AFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis ondersoek die impak van die Julie 2005 born aanvalle in Londen op verhoudinge tussen verskeie rolspelers in die bestuur van toerisme, te wete, die regering, die besigheidsgemeenskap asook organisasies in die openbare sektor. Die spesifieke fokus van die studie word gemotiveer deur die waameming dat reaksies deur bogenoemde partye op 'n toerisme krisis ly tot n 'joined up' vorm van regering. Dit beteken dat die aktiwiteite en die belange van al die betrokke partye belyn word en dat daar hoër vlakke van koordinasie en samenwerking is. Die 2001 krisisse in die toerisme sektor wat deur Bek en Klouseer asook 9/11 veroorsaak was, was die oorspronklike dryfvere agter 'n vemuwingsproses in die Verenigde Koningkryk. Die impakte van die meer onlangse Julie bomaanvalle het verder bygedra tot die tendens. Daar word aangevoer dat die verdere versterking van die verhoudings die mees effektiewe manier mag wees om met toerisme krisise om te gaan. Dus is 'n ontleding van die impak van die Julie bomaanvalle op die aard van die verhoudinge tussen die partye wat betrokke is by die toerismebeleid belangrik, veral om lig te werp op hoe dit die sektor affekteer in sy voorbereiding vir, en bevoegdheid om te reageer op moontlike toekomstige aanvalle. Die voortdurende bedreiging van terreuraanvalle, asook die huidige tendens van afwenteling van regeringsmag, <lien as agtergrond vir die studie. Die studie is kwalitatief van aard. Data is ingewin van sekondere literatuur, owerheidsdokumentasie, mediaverslae asook persoonlike kommunikasie met verteenwoordigers van alle partye wat in die studie ontleed word. Vraelyste is uitgestuur en onderhoude is gevoer gedurende Julie en September van 2007. Die netwerk paradigma is gebruik as 'n analitiese raamwerk en verkaf die teoretiese onderbou wat lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat die Julie bomaanvalle 'n asimmetriese effek op horisontale en vertikale netwerke tussen partye gehad het. Die impakte van die bomme was veral waameembaar op sub-nasionale vlak van toerismebeleidsmaking. Dit het onder meer daartoe gelei dat plaatselike en streekorganisasies hul magte gekonsolideer het. Daar is ook bevind dat die besigheidsgemeenskap en organisasies in die openbare sektor wat sterker verhoudinge gesmee het, 'n voordelige uitwerking gehad het op hul verhouding met plaaslike en streeksregerings. Die netwerk paradigma word gesieri as 'n betroubare en suksesvolle analitise raamwerk, waardeur die ontleding van die impakte van terreur, politieke onstabiliteit of 'n ander belangrike veranderlike wat 'n gevaar mag inhou vir die welvaart van die toerismebedryf, doeltreffend gedoen kan word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49404
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