Creasing studies in citrus

Phiri, Zanele Penelope (2010-03)

Thesis (MScAgric (Horticulture))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Creasing, also known as albedo breakdown, is a preharvest disorder that affects the albedo of citrus fruit causing creases on the surface of the fruit. It is a recurrent problem in Navel and Valencia oranges and can cause individual orchard losses which often exceed 50%. Although the contributing factors are known, the physiological basis of creasing development is unresolved and the current control measures do not prevent creasing satisfactory. Hence, better control measures and further understanding of the physiology of creasing development is required. The objective of this two-year study was to determine if the position of fruit in a tree, light and carbohydrate manipulation techniques, and albedo mineral nutrients influence creasing development. Furthermore, the most effective application timing of gibberellic acid (GA3) with the least negative effect on fruit rind colour development and the effectiveness of cytokinins, other products and different root biostimulants to reduce creasing incidence were evaluated. The position of fruit in the tree and light influenced the development of creasing and the distribution of mineral nutrients in the albedo. Creasing incidence was higher on the south side than on the north side of the tree and fruit from the inside sub-sectors had a greater creasing incidence compared to fruit from the outside sub-sectors. The shady part of outside fruit was more creased compared to the sunny part of the fruit and covering fruit with brown paper bags increased creasing severity. The light manipulation techniques used on the leaves and fruit increased the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the albedo and differences in the albedo mineral nutrients amongst the sub-sectors evaluated were observed, but creasing severity or creasing incidence was not significantly correlated with the albedo mineral concentrations at harvest. Albedo mineral concentrations earlier in the season may play a role in creasing development, as creasing severity was significantly correlated with copper (Cu), K, and Mn concentrations in the albedo during stage II of fruit development. Creasing incidence and albedo mineral concentrations were not affected by any of the carbohydrate manipulation techniques used in this study. The incidence and severity of creasing was significantly reduced, with a minor negative effect on fruit rind colour development, by the application of GA3, from mid November to mid January. Localised fruit application of CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea], MaxCel (6- Benzyladenine) and CPPU in combination with calcium after physiological fruit drop reduced the incidence and severity of creasing, although creasing incidence was not significantly different from the control. The application of Messenger®, AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and different root biostimulants did not reduce creasing incidence. The results showed that cytokinins could reduce creasing incidence and justify further studies on application and uptake efficiency. The use of different root biostimulants are not recommended, but it is suggested that treatment effects may be more pronounced over a longer period.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kraakskil is ‘n vooroes abnormalitiet wat die albedo van sitrusvrugte affekteer, deur krake op die oppervlak van vrugte te veroorsaak. Dit is ‘n algemene probleem in Navel en Valencia lemoene en kan boordverliese van tot 50% of soms hoër veroorsaak. Alhoewel die bydraende faktore bekend is, is die fisiologiese basis van kraakskil ontwikkeling onopgelos en die beskikbare beheermaatreëls is nie bevredigend nie. Dus, beter beheermaatreëls en ‘n beter begrip van die fisiologie van kraakskil ontwikkeling is nodig. Die doel van die twee-jaar studie was om te bepaal of die posisie van vrugte in ‘n boom, lig en koolhidraat manipulasie tegnieke en minerale elemente in die albedo, kraakskil ontwikkeling beïnvloed. Die mees effektiewe toedieningstyd van gibberelliensuur (GA3) sonder ‘n negatiewe effek op vrugkleur is bepaal en die effektiwiteit van sitokiniene, ander produkte en verskillende wortel biostimulante om kraakskil voorkoms te verminder, is geëvalueer. Die posisie van vrugte in ‘n boom en lig het kraakskil ontwikkeling en die verspreiding van minerale element in die albedo beïnvloed. Kraakskil voorkoms was hoër aan die suidekant van die boom as aan die noordekant en vrugte in die binnekant van die boom het ‘n groter kraakskil voorkoms as vrugte in die buitekant van die boom gehad. Die skadukant van buitevrugte het meer kraakskil gehad as die sonkant en die toemaak van vrugte met ‘n bruin papiersak het die graad van kraaksil verhoog. Die lig manipulasie tegnieke wat op die blare en vrugte gebruik is, het die stikstof (N), fosfaat (P), kalium (K) en mangaan (Mn) konsentasies in die albedo verhoog en verskille in die albedo minerale elemente tussen sub-sektore is waargeneem, maar betekenisvolle korrelasies is nie tussen die graad en voorkoms van kraakskil en die albedo minerale element konsentrasies by oestyd waargeneem nie. Albedo minerale element konsentrasies vroeër in die seisoen mag ‘n rol speel by kraakskil ontwikkeling, omdat die graad van kraakskil betekenisvol gekorreleer was met albedo koper (Cu), K, en Mn konsentrasies tydens fase II van vrugontwikkeling. Kraakskil voorkoms en albedo minerale element konsentrasies is nie deur enige van die koolhidraat manipulasie tegnieke geaffekteer nie. Die voorkoms en graad van kraakskil is betekenisvol verlaag, met ‘n geringe negatiewe effek op vrugkleur, deur die toediening van GA3 vanaf mid November tot mid Januarie. Gelokaliseerde vrugtoedienings van CPPU [N-(2-chloro-4-piridiel)-N-phenielureum], MaxCel (6- Bensieladenien) en CPPU saam met kalsium na fisiologiese vrugval het die voorkoms en graad van kraakskil verlaag, alhoewel kraakskil voorkoms nie betekenisvol van die kontrole verskil het nie. Die toediening van Messenger®, AVG (amino etoksievinielglisien) en veskillende wortel biostimulante het nie kraakskil voorkoms verlaag nie. Die resultate het getoon dat sitokiniene kraakskil voorkoms kan verlaag en verdere studies op die toediening en opname effektiwiteit word aanbeveel. Die gebruik van verskillende wortel biostimulante word nie aanbeveel nie, maar die effek behoort meer sigbaar te wees na ‘n langer periode van behandeling.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4219
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