An investigation of pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure in nulliparous women of different race groups

Van der Walt, Ina (2010-03)

Thesis (MScPhysio (Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Physiotherapy))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The pelvic floor muscles (PFM) contribute to urinary continence and overactive PFM seem to be associated with pelvic pain syndrome (PPS). The literature indicates that ethnic differences regarding symptoms of urinary incontinence may exist. Research is needed to establish relationships between PFM function and symptoms reported by women of different ethnic groups. Objectives: To compare the PFM strength and endurance in black, white and coloured women. To investigate relationships between PFM strength, vaginal resting pressures, risk factors and symptoms associated with PFM dysfunction and PPS. Method: A cross-sectional study assessed the PFM strength and vaginal resting pressures of 122 nulliparous black (n=44), white (n=44) and coloured (n=34) university students. A self-developed questionnaire determined inclusion, demographic variables, factors affecting/factors associated with PFM strength and symptoms related to PPS. Maximum voluntary contraction pressure (cmH2O) and vaginal resting pressure (cmH2O) were measured with the Peritron TM 9300 (Cardio Design, Australia) used with the Camtech AS vaginal balloon sensor (Sandvika, Norway). Two sets of 3 maximum voluntary contractions of the PFM were recorded. Results: The mean age of the group was 22 ± 3.54 years and mean BMI of 23± 4.16 kg/m2. Black women (25 cmH2O ± 13.5) had significantly stronger PFM than white (p=0.02) or coloured (p<0.01) women, but no significant difference (p=0.78) in PFM strength existed between white (18.4 cmH2O ± 9.8) and coloured (15.6 cmH2O ± 8) women. In black women, PFM strength decreased significantly (p=0.02) between the sets, whereas no significant difference between sets was noted in the other ethnic groups. Increased PFM strength was associated with SUI (p=0.03) and amenorrhoea (p=0.01) and decreased PFM strength was associated with decreased frequency of bowel motion (p=0.01). In this sample, increased vaginal resting pressure was associated with menorrhagia (p=0.04). Conclusion: Black nulliparous women had stronger PFM than white and coloured women. There was no difference in PFM strength between white and coloured women. Endurance, as measured in this study, indicates that black women have decreased endurance of the PFM compared to white and coloured women. These findings inform the current research on ethnic differences in the prevalence of urinary incontinence. Preliminary data suggest that there was no relationship between vaginal resting pressures and symptoms of PPS and risk factors for PFM dysfunction, except for menorrhagia.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bekkenvloer spiere (BVS) dra by tot urinêre kontinensie en ooraktiewe BVS kan moontlik geassosieer wees met pelviese pyn sindroom (PPS). Uit die literatuur blyk dit of daar etniese verskille bestaan in die simptome van urinere inkontinensie gerapporteer deur vroue. Navorsing is nodig om die verwantskap tussen BVS funksie en simptome wat deur pasiënte van verskillende etniese groepe gerapporteer word vas te stel. Doel: Om „n vergelyking te tref tussen BVS sterkte in swart, wit en kleurling vroue. Om vas te stel of daar assosiasies bestaan tussen BVS sterkte, rustende vaginale druklesings en risiko faktore en simptome geassosieer met bekkenvloer disfunksie en PPS. Metodologie: „n Dwarssnit studie het die BVS sterkte en rustende vaginale drukke van 122 nullipareuse swart (n=44), wit (n=44) en kleurling (n=34) universiteit studente geëvalueer. Insluiting, uitsluiting, demografiese veranderlikes, faktore wat kan affekteer/faktore geassosieer met BVS sterkte en simptome geassosier met PPS is deur „n self ontwikkelde vraelys geëvalueer. Maksimale willekeurige spiersametrekking drukke (cmH2O) en rustende vaginale drukke (cmH2O) was gemeet met „n Peritron™9300 perineometer (Cardio Design, Australië) wat saam „n vaginale ballon sensor (Camtech AS, Sandvika, Noorweë) gebruik is. Twee stelle van 3 maksimale willekeurige sametrekkings van die BVS was gemeet. Resultate: Die groep se gemiddelde ouderdom was 22±3.54 jaar en die gemiddelde liggaamsgewig indeks was 23±4.16kg/m2. Swart vroue (25 cmH2O ±13.5) het beduidend sterker BVS gehad as wit (p=0.02) en kleurling (p<0.01) vroue, maar daar was geen beduidende verskil (p=0.78) in BVS sterkte tussen wit (18.4 cmH2O ± 9.8) en kleurling (15.6 cmH2O ± 8) vroue nie. Die BVS sterkte in swart vroue het beduidend (p=0.02) verminder tussen die stelle, maar geen beduidende verskille was waargeneem in die ander etniese groepe tussen stelle. Verhoogde BVS sterkte was geassosieer met druklek (p=0.03), amenorrhoea (p=0.01) en verminderde BVS sterkte was geassosieer met verminderde frekwensie van opelyf (p=0.01). Verhoogde rustende vaginale drukke was geassosieer met menoragie in hierdie steekproef. Gevolgtrekking: Swart nullipareuse vroue het sterker BVS gehad as wit en kleurling vroue, Daar was geen verskil in BVS sterkte tussen wit en kleurling vroue nie. Uithouvermoë soos in hierdie studie getoets toon dat swart vroue verminderde uithouvermoë het i.v.m. wit en kleurling vroue. Hierdie bevindings dra by tot die huidige navorsing oor etniese verskille in die prevalensie van urinêre inkontinensie. Daar was geen verwantskap tussen vaginale rustende drukke en simptome van PPS en risiko faktore vir die ontwikkeling van bekkenvloer disfunksie, behalwe vir menoragie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4196
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