The reactive absorption of CO2 into solutions of MEA/2-propanol

Du Preez, Louis Jacobus (2010-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Process Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The discovery that the reaction of CO2 with primary amines in both aqueous and non-aqueous media provides a viable chemical method for determining the effective interfacial mass transfer area for separation column internals has lead to an increase in the interest of studying the reaction kinetics and determining the governing reaction rate expressions. For the absorption studies conducted on these systems, many authors assumed that power rate law reaction kinetics govern the reaction rate, which simplified the derivation of absorption correlations. This has already been proven to be an over simplifying assumption, since many authors suggest a non-elementary rate expression based on the pseudo-steady state hypothesis for the reactive zwitterion intermediate to be valid. An evaluation of the existing reaction rate expressions for the homogeneous liquid phase reaction of CO2 and mono-ethanolamine (MEA) in a 2-propanol solvent system was performed. The reaction rate profiles of CO2 and MEA at 25ºC, 30ºC and 35ºC, and relative initial concentrations of [MEA]i = [CO2]i, [MEA]i = 2.5[CO2]i, [MEA]i = 4[CO2]i were determined by means of an isothermal CSTR set-up. Scavenging of the unreacted MEA with benzoyl chloride provided the means to be able to stop the reaction in the product stream. This in turn allowed for the construction of concentration- and reaction rate profiles. The reaction rate data was modelled on various rate expressions by means of a MATLAB® non-linear estimation technique, employing the Levenberg-Marquard algorithm for minimizing the loss function. It was concluded that the rate expressions proposed in literature are insufficient and a rate expression derived fundamentally from first principals is proposed: [ ][ ] [ ] [ ][ ] [ ]2 MEA 1 2 2 -r = k CO RNH - k2 Z + k3 Z RNH2 - k4 S where ki are the reaction rate constants, Z is the zwitterion reactive intermediate and S the salt product of the overall reaction mechanism. In order to be able to determine the effective interfacial mass transfer area, the absorption rate per unit area or specific rate of absorption for the solute gas as a rate expression function of species concentration must firstly be determined. This is achieved by performing experimental absorption runs on a gas-liquid contactor of known surface area. This study incorporated the well known wetted wall experimental set-up. The aim was to construct and implement a wetted wall set-up and conduct absorption experiments for a gas side CO2 concentration range stretching from pure CO2 to diluted gas mixtures absorbing into solutions of varying MEA concentrations. Validation of the set-up was done by performing experiments at similar conditions to a previous study. The study then proceeded to determine the absolute and specific absorption rates at CO2 mass percentages of 100%, 78%, 55% and 30% into solutions of MEA concentrations of 0.25 and 0.3 mol/L. These runs were conducted at 25ºC and 30ºC. The wetted wall was designed to facilitate absorption studies at column heights of 60, 90 and 105mm. This allowed the investigation of the effect that surface area and column height has on the absolute rate of absorption as well as the CO2 and MEA concentrations in the liquid phase It was found that the specific absorption rate is independent of contact time, which is consistent with the rapid nature of the reaction. It was furthermore found that an increase in MEA concentration caused an increase in the absorption rate. The effect of temperature is linked with the solubility of CO2 in the solution. As the temperature increases, the solubility of CO2 decreases, but the absorption rate increases. The result is that it seems as if a change in temperature has no effect on the absorption rate, when in actual fact it does. An increase in the amount of CO2 absorbed is noticed for an increase in wetted wall surface area. This is expected and indicates that there is an increase in the amount of CO2 absorbed as the column length increases. Stopping the absorption reaction by means of MEA scavenging with benzoyl chloride at various column heights will allow for the construction of a concentration profile for both CO2 and MEA as a function of column height. These profiles will allow for the derivation of a non-elementary rate expression governing the specific absorption rate. This has been identified as ‘n area of great interest for future investigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Groot navorsingsbelangstelling in die reaksiekinetika van CO2 en monoethanolamien (MEA) het ontstaan sedert die ontdekking dat hierdie reaktiewe sisteem ook ‘n goeie metode is vir die bepaling van die effektiewe massaoordragsoppervlakte van gestruktureerde pakkingsmateriaal. Die klem val op die bepaling van eerstens die mees geskikte en akkurate model om die reaksiekinetika te beskryf wat dan gebruik kan word om die absorbsiekinetika deeglik te karaktariseer. Sommige van die vorige navorsers het vereenvoudigende aannames gemaak rakende die reaksiekinetika ten einde die bepaling van geskikte absopsievergelykings te vergemaklik. Ander het gevind dat die nie-elementêre, pseudo-gestadigde toestand hipotese gebasseer op die reaktiewe zwitterioon tussenproduk van die reaksie ‘n meer verteenwoordigende kinetiese model is. Hierdie studie is eerstens gemik op die evaluasie van die bestaande reaksiekinetikavergelykings deur die homogene vloeistoffase reaksie van CO2 met mono-etanolamien (MEA) in die oplosmiddel, 2-propanol te ondersoek. Die studie is uitgevoer in ‘n isoterme CSTR sisteem by onderskeidelik 25ºC, 30ºC en 35ºC en MEA konsentrasies van [MEA]i = [CO2]i, [MEA]i = 2.5[CO2]i en [MEA]i = 4[CO2]i. Die voorgestelde reaksiekinetikavergelykings was gemodelleer met ‘n nie-lineêre datapassingstegniek verskaf deur die sagtewarepakket, MATLAB® wat die Levenberg- Marquard algoritme gebruik om die resfunksie te minimeer. Uit die teorie en datapassing word die volgende vergelyking voorgestel: [ ][ ] [ ] [ ][ ] [ ]2 MEA 1 2 2 -r = k CO RNH - k2 Z + k3 Z RNH2 - k4 S waar ki die reaksietempokonstante voorstel, Z die zwitterioontussenproduk en S die soutproduk. Die eerste stap in die bepaling van die effektiewe massaoordragsarea van gestruktureerde pakkingsmateriaal is om ‘n geskikte vergelyking of korrelasie vir die spesifieke absorpsie van die gas te bepaal. Dit word gedoen deur absoprsie eksperimente te doen op toerusting van bekende oppervlakarea. Hierdie studie het die reeds bekende ‘wetted wall’ opstelling gebruik. Die hoof doelwit van hierdie absorpsiestudie was om ‘n werkende opstelling te bou en absorpsie eksperimente vir CO2 konsentrasies wat strek van suiwer CO2 tot verdunde mengsels uit te voer. Die konsentrasie MEA is ook gevarieër. Die geskiktheid van die opstelling is eerstens getoets deur eksperimentele lopies uit te voer by soorgelyke toestande as ‘n vorige studie. Die doel van die studie is om die absolute en spesifieke absorpsietempos van CO2 by gasfase massapersentasies van 100%, 78%, 55% en 30% in MEA/2-propanol oplossings met MEA konsentrasies van 0.25 en 0.3 mol/L te bepaal. Die lopies is uigevoer by beide 25ºC en 30ºC. Die opstelling is ook ontwerp om absorpsie eksperimente by verskillende kolomhoogtes uit te voer. Hierdie hoogtes is 60, 90 en 105mm. Hierdie studie het tweedens gefokus op die effek wat absorpsiearea en kolomhoogte op die absorpsietempo van CO2 het. Die resultate van die studie toon dat die absorpsietempo onafhanklik is van kontaktyd. Dit stem saam met die vinnige reaksietempo. ‘n Toename in MEA konsentrasie het ‘n toename in spesifieke absorpsietempo tot gevolg, terwyl die effek van temperatuur gekoppel kan word aan die oplosbaarheid van CO2. Soos die temperatuur toeneem, neem die absolute absorpsietempo toe, maar die oplosbaarheid van CO2 neem af, dit het beide ‘n toenemende en afnemende effek op die spesifieke absorpsietempo. Die hoeveelheid CO2 geabsorbeer neem toe met ‘n toename in kolomhoogte. Die konsentrasie MEA in die uitlaatvloeistof toon ‘n skynbare eksponensiële afname met ‘n toename in kolomhoogte. ‘n Studie gemik om die konsentrasieprofiele van CO2 en MEA as ‘n funksie van kolomhoogte te bepaal, word voorgestel. Absorpsiemodelle en korrelasies kan dan afgelei word uit hierdie profiele, wat die berekening van die effektiewe massaoordragsarea akkuraat sal maak. Dit sal deel vorm van toekomstige navorsing.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4192
This item appears in the following collections: