The efficacy of Diavite tm (Prosopis glandulosa) as anti-diabetic treatment in rat models of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diet-induced-obese insulin resistance

Hill, Cindy (2010-03)

Thesis (MScMedSc (Biomedical Sciences. Medical Physiology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: Obesity and its associated complications, such as the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, are escalating worldwide. In recognition of this, untested remedies advertised as anti-diabetic agents are flooding the market. Many of these products have limited efficacy, limited tolerability and significant side-effects. One remedy, claiming to have anti-diabetic properties, is DiaviteTM. DiaviteTM, a herbal product, consisting solely of the dried and ground pods of the Prosopis glandulosa tree, which is currently marketed as a food supplement with blood glucose and blood pressure stabilizing properties, as well as having the ability to enhance glucose utilization. It is already freely available from agents as well as sold over the counter at pharmacies. The producers of DiaviteTM are now seeking registration for their product from the Medicines Control Council (MCC) and, therefore, require solid scientific evidence of its effects. Aims: The aims of our study were, on request of the producing company, to determine the efficacy of DiaviteTM (P. glandulosa) as an anti-diabetic agent and possible mechanisms of action of this plant product. Methology: We utilized rat models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes and diet-induced obese (DIO) insulin resistance. Male Wistar rats were rendered (a) type 1 diabetic after a once-off intra-peritoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg and (b) insulin resistant after being on a high caloric diet (DIO) for 16 weeks. Half the animals of the type 1 diabetes model as well as the insulin resistant model were placed on DiaviteTM treatment (25 mg/kg/day) for a period of 4 – 8 weeks, depending on the model. The STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats were sacrificed and the pancreata harvested for histological analysis. Animals on the DIO diet were sacrificed and (i) intra-peritoneal fat weight determined (ii) isolated hearts subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion to determine infarct size and protein expression profiles and (iii) cardiomyocytes prepared to determine insulin sensitivity. At the time of sacrifice blood was collected for blood glucose and serum insulin level determination, for both models. In addition, a standard toxicology study was performed in Vervet monkeys over a 3 month period. Results: In our type 1 diabetic model (blood glucose > 10 mmol/L) with a β-cell reserve, DiaviteTM treatment lead to increased serum insulin levels (p < 0.001) in both control and STZ groups as well as increased small β-cell (0 - 2500 μm2) formation (p < 0.001) in the pancreas of the STZ animals. Hearts from DiaviteTM treated control and DIO insulin resistant animals presented with smaller infarct sizes (p < 0.05) after ischaemia/reperfusion compared to their controls. DiaviteTM treatment lead to the increase of basal (p < 0.01) and insulin-stimulated (p < 0.05) glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes prepared from DIO insulin resistant animals. DiaviteTM treatment also led to significantly suppressed PTEN expression and activity (p < 0.01) in the DIO insulin resistant animals. In addition, DiaviteTM treatment had (i) no obvious detrimental effects in our rat models and (ii) no toxicity over a 3 month period in vervet monkeys. Conclusion: Our present study has shown that DiaviteTM treatment lowers fasting blood glucose levels, stimulates insulin secretion and leads to the formation of β-cells. In addition, oral consumption of DiaviteTM elicits cardioprotection against an ischaemic incident. DiaviteTM treatment improves insulin sensitivity of cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, it has been established that DiaviteTM treatment has no obvious detrimental effects in either of our rat models and no short-term toxic effects over a 3 month period in Vervet monkeys (data not shown). We thus conclude that in our models, DiaviteTM proved safe and it seems as if DiaviteTM, after short-term use, is beneficial as a dietary supplement.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Vetsug, en die gepaardgaande komplikasies, soos die metaboliese sindroom, hipertensie en kardiovaskulêre siektes, neem wêreldwyd toe. Daar is tans verskeie middels op die mark wat as anti-diabetiese middels geadverteer word. Baie van hierdie geadverteerde produkte het beperkte effektiwiteit en het verskeie newe-effekte. Een so ‘n middel, is DiaviteTM. DiaviteTM is 'n plantproduk, wat slegs uit die gedroogte en fyngemaakte peule van die P. glandulosa boom bestaan. Hierdie produk word tans bemark as 'n voedselaanvulling met beide bloedglukose en bloeddruk stabiliserende eienskappe, asook die vermoë om glukose gebruik te verbeter. DiaviteTM is reeds vrylik beskikbaar van agente sowel as verkrygbaar by verskeie apteke. Die produsente van DiaviteTM wil aansoek doen om registrasie vir hul produk by die Medisynebeheerraad (MCC) en hulle vereis daarom wetenskaplike bewyse van die gevolge van die gebruik van hierdie produk. Doel: Die doel van ons studie was om op versoek van die produksie maatskappy, die doeltreffendheid van DiaviteTM (P. glandulosa) as 'n anti-diabetiese behandeling te evalueer, sowel as die moontlike meganismes van werking van hierdie plantproduk. Metodes: Ons het gebruik gemaak van rot modelle van (i) streptozotocin (STZ)-geïnduseerde tipe 1 diabetes en (ii) dieet-geïnduseerde vetsugtig (DIO) insulienweerstandigheid. Manlike Wistar rotte was as (a) tipe 1 diabeties geklassifiseer na 'n eenmalige, intra-peritoneale inspuiting van STZ teen 'n dosis van 40 mg/kg en as (b) insulienweerstandig geklassifiseer, nadat hulle op 'n hoë kalorie dieet (DIO) vir 16 weke was. Die helfte van beide die tipe 1 diabetes en die insulienweerstandige groep diere was met DiaviteTM behandel (25 mg/kg/dag) vir 'n tydperk van 4 - 8 weke, afhangende van die model. Die STZ-geïnduseerde tipe 1 diabetes rotte is geslag en die pankreata geoes vir histologiese analise. Diere op die DIO dieet is geslag en (i) die intra-peritoneale vet gewig bepaal, (ii) die geïsoleerde harte blootgestel aan isgemie/herperfusie om die infarkt groottes vas te stel, sowel as die proteïenuitdrukkingsprofiele te bepaal en (iii) kardiomiosiete was berei om die insulien sensitiwiteit te bepaal. Ten tyde van die slagting is bloedmonsters geneem vir bloedglukose en serum insulien vlak bepaling, vir beide modelle. Additioneel, is 'n standaard toksologie studie met Vervet apies oor 'n 3 maande tydperk uitgevoer. Resultate: In die model van tipe 1 diabetes (bloed glukose > 10 mmol/L), met 'n β-sel reserwe, is gevind dat DiaviteTM behandeling tot verhoogde serum insulien vlakke (p < 0.001) in beide kontrole en STZ groepe lei. DiaviteTM behandeling lei ook tot ‘n hoër vlak van klein β-sel (0 - 2500 μm2) vorming (p < 0.001) in die pankreas van die STZ diere. Die harte van die DiaviteTM behandele kontrole en DIO groep het kleiner infarkt groottes (p < 0.05) getoon na isgemie/herperfusie in vergelyking met hul kontrole groepe. DiaviteTM behandeling het ook gelei tot verhoogde basal (p < 0. 01) en insulin-gestimuleerde (p < 0. 05) glukose opname in kardiomiosiete wat berei was van DIO insulinweerstandige diere. DiaviteTM behandeling het PTEN uitdrukking en aktiwiteit aansienlik onderdruk (p < 0.01) in die DIO insulienweerstandige groep diere. Daar is dus gevind dat DiaviteTM behandeling (i) geen duidelike nadelige invloed in ons rot-modelle en (ii) geen toksisiteit oor 'n 3 maande tydperk in Vervet apies getoon nie. Gevolgtrekking: Ons huidige studie toon dus dat DiaviteTM behandeling vastende bloedglukosevlakke verlaag, insulien sekresie stimuleer en die proses van β-sell vorming bevorder. Additioneel, is gewys dat wanneer DiaviteTM mondelings gebruik word, dit die hart beskerm teen isgemiese insidente. Ons het ook getoon dat DiaviteTM behandeling insuliensensitiwiteit van kardiomiosiete verhoog. Verder is daar vasgestel dat DiaviteTM behandeling geen ooglopende nadelige gevolge in beide ons rot-modelle getoon het nie en daar geen korttermyn-toksiese effekte oor 'n 3 maande tydperk in Vervet apies (data nie getoon) is nie. Ons kan dus aflei dat Diavite TM in ons modelle veilig is en na kort termyn gebruik, voordelig is as 'n dieetaanvulling.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4173
This item appears in the following collections: