Influence of geometric and environmental parameters on air-cooled steam condenser performance

Joubert, Retief (2010-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Air-cooled steam condensers (ACSCs) are used in the power generation industry to directly condense turbine exhaust steam in areas where cooling water is expensive or unavailable. Large axial flow fans force ambient air through A-frame heat exchanger bundles made up of a number of rows of finned tubes through which the steam is ducted and consequently condensed during the heat transfer process to the air. The heat rejection rate or performance of an ACSC is proportional to the air mass flow rate, determined by fan volumetric performance, and the temperature difference between the finned tubes and the air. The air flow through a 30 fan ACSC (termed the generic ACSC) operating under windy conditions is solved using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT and the required data is extracted from the solution to calculate performance trends. It is found that fan performance is reduced due to a combination of factors. The first is additional upstream flow losses caused by separated flow occurring primarily at the leading edge of the ACSC and secondarily at the fan bellmouth inlets. The second factor leading to reduced fan performance is the presence of distorted flow conditions at the fan inlets. Hot plume air recirculation is responsible for decreased ACSC thermal performance due to increased fan inlet air temperatures. It is found that reduced fan performance is the greater contributor to reduced ACSC performance. The performance effects of varying two geometrical parameters of the generic ACSC, namely the fan platform height and the windwall height, are investigated under windy conditions. It is found that each parameter is linked to a specific mechanism of performance reduction with the fan platform height affecting fan performance and the windwall height affecting recirculation. The respective platform and windwall heights specified for the generic ACSC are found to provide acceptable performance results. To mitigate wind induced performance reductions a number of modification and additions to the ACSC are investigated. These primarily aim at improving fan performance and included the addition of walkways or skirts, the addition of wind screens beneath the fan platform, removing the bellmouth fan inlets, using different types of fans and increasing fan power. The addition of a periphery walkway and windscreens is considered to be the most practical methods of improving ACSC performance under windy conditions. The generic ACSC is modified to include both modifications and under high wind conditions the performance is found to increase measurably. The modifications also resulted in the ACSC performance being less sensitive to wind direction effects.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lugverkoelde kondensators word in die kragopwekkings industrie gebruik om turbine uitlaatstoom te kondenseer, veral in gebiede waar verkoelingwater duur of onbeskikbaar is. Aksiaalvloei-waaiers forseer omgewingslug deur A-raam warmteuitruiler bondels wat bestaan uit verskeie rye vinbuise. Die uitlaatstoom vloei in die vinbuise en kondenseer as gevolg van die warmteoordrag na die lug. Die warmteoordragkapasiteit van die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator is eweredig aan die massavloei-tempo van die lug, wat bepaal word deur die waaierwerkverigting, en die temperatuur verskil tussen die vinbuise en die lug. Die lugvloei deur 'n 30 waaier lugverkoelde stoom kondensator (genoem die generiese lugverkoelde stoom kondensator) onderworpe aan winderige toestande word opgelos deur die gebruik van die kommersiële vloeidinamika-pakket, FLUENT. Die nodige data is onttrek uit die oplossing en werkverrigting neigings is bereken. Dit is gevind dat waaierwerkverigting verminder as gevolg van 'n kombinasie van faktore. Die eerste is bykomende vloeiverliese wat veroorsaak word deur vloeiwegbreking wat plaasvind primêr by die voorste rand van die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator asook by die klokvormige waaier-inlate. 'n Tweede faktor wat lei tot vermindere waaierwerkverigting is die teenwoordigheid van lugvloeiversteurings by die waaier-inlate. Hersirkulering van warm pluim lug is ook verantwoordelik vir verminderde lugverkoelde stoom kondensator werkverrigting. Daar word bevind dat die vermindering in waaierwerkverrigting die grootste bydraende faktor tot vermindere lugverkoelde stoom kondensator werkverrigting is. Die effek van verandering van twee geometriese lugverkoelde stoom kondensator parameters, naamlik die waaierplatformhoogte en die windwandhoogte is ondersoek onder winderige toestande. Daar word bevind dat elk van die parameters gekoppel is aan 'n spesifieke meganisme van vermindere lugverkoelde stoom kondensator verrigting: Die waaierplatformhoogte beïnvloed waaierverrigting terwyl die windwandhoogte hersirkulering beinvloed. Daar word ook bevind dat die onderskeie waaierplatform- and windwandhoogtes van die generiese lugverkoelde stoom kondensator, van so 'n aard is dat dit aanvaarbare werkverrigting tot gevolg het. Om verlaging in werksverrigting in winderige toestande te verminder is verskeie modifikasies en byvoegings tot die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator ondersoek wat primêr gemik is op verbetering in waaierwerkverigting. Die ondersoek dek die byvoeging van 'n loopvlak, die byvoeging van windskerms onder die waaierplatform, verwydering van die klokvormige waaier-inlate, die gebruik van verskillende waaiers en die verhoging van waaierdrywing. Daar was besluit dat die byvoeging van 'n loopvlak rondom die rand van die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator en die byvoeging van windskerms die mees praktiese manier was om die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator verigting te verbeter. Die generiese lugverkoelde stoom kondensator was aangepas om beide veranderings in te sluit en meetbare verbetering in werkrigting was verkry. Die veranderings het ook meegebring dat die lugverkoelde stoom kondensator minder sensitief is vir windrigting effekte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4153
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