The effects of low level laser therapy on satellite cells

Van Niekerk, Gustavus (2009-03)

Thesis (MSc (Physiological Sciences)--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although muscle tissue demonstrates a remarkable capacity for regeneration following injury, this process is slow and often accompanied by the formation of scar tissue and a subsequent decrease in contractile capacity following regeneration. Treatment options are few and mostly supportive in nature. This regeneration process involves muscle stem cells (satellite cells) which ultimately give rise to the regenerated muscle. The contentious field of low level laser therapy (LLLT) has made remarkable claims in facilitating wound healing in soft tissue injuries of various types. Yet, the mechanism(s) invoked in these beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have investigated the effects of LLLT using a 638 nm laser on satellite cells in culture and in-vivo. Using an array of techniques we have measured, amongst other things, metabolic responses to laser irradiation, signaling pathways activated/altered and antioxidant status. In response to laser irradiation satellite cells in culture showed an increase in MTT values (a measure of metabolic activity) and a decrease in antioxidant status (measured using the ORAC assay). In addition laser irradiation also altered the expression and phosphorylation state of several signaling pathways, including Akt and STAT-3. Following on from this the effects of laser irradiation on satellite cells in-vivo was assessed in a rat model of contusion injury. No significant differences in satellite cell number was found following laser irradiation, changes were seen in tissue antioxidant status and blood antioxidant status (measured using the ORAC assay). In the course of this study several standard techniques were used to investigate the effects of laser irradiation on satellite cells both in-vitro and invivo. It has become apparent that several of these techniques have problems associated with them that possibly make them inappropriate for vi further use in studies involving laser irradiation. However the results indicate that laser therapy is induces satellite cell behavior and further study is warranted in this field.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alhoewel spierweefsel merkwaardige regenerasie kapasiteit vertoon ten opsigte van besering, is hierdie proses stadig en word soms vergesel met die vorming van letselweefsel asook ‘n gevolglike afname in kontaktiele kapasiteit na afloop van regenerasie. Behandelingsmoontlikhede is skaars en meesal ondersteunend van aard. Hierdie proses sluit spierstamselle (satelietselle), wat uiteindelik die ontstaan van die regenerasie van spier tot gevolg het, in. Die kontroversiële veld van lae vlak laserterapie (Engels: Low level laser therapy (LLLT)) het merkwaardige aansprake in die fasilitering met verskeie sagteweefsel wondgenesing. Nietemin, die meganisme(s) wat voordelige effekte induseer, word nog nie goed begryp nie. Ons het die effek van LLLT, deur gebruik te maak van ‘n 638 nm laser op kultuur in vitro satelietselle sowel in-vivo, ondersoek. Deur gebruik te maak van verskeie tegnieke is onder meer die metaboliese, sowel die seinstransduksie weë en antioksidantstatus na laserbestraling, gemeet. In reaksie op die laserbestraling het satelietselle (in kultuur) ‘n toename in MTT waardes getoon (‘n maatstaf van die metaboliese aktiwiteit) en ‘n afname in die antioksidantstatus (gemeet deur van die ORAC toets). Addisioneel het laserbestraling ook uitdrukking en fosforilering van verskeie proteïene betrokke in seintransduksieweë beïnvloed, insluitend Akt, STAT-3). Na afloop van hierdie effekte op satelietselle na laserbestraling, is daar gebruik gemaak van ‘n kneusbeseringsrotmodel om hierdie effekte in vivo te ondersoek. Geen betekenisvolle verskille in die aantal satelietselle na laserbestraling is opgemerk nie, maar veranderings is wel opgemerk in weefsel- en bloed-antioksidantstatus (gemeet deur van die ORAC toets gebruik te maak). Gedurende die verloop van die studie is van verskeie standaardtegnieke gebruik gemaak om die effekte van laserbestraling op beide satelietselle in vitro en in vivo te ondersoek. iv Dit het duidelik na vore gekom dat daar wel gepaardgaande probleme met van hierdie tegnieke voorgekom het, en dat van hierdie tegnieke nie gepas is vir ondersoek in laserbestralingsstudies nie. Nietemin, die resultate toon wel dat laserbehandeling. satelietselgedrag induseer wat verdere studie in hierdie veld noodsaak

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