An evaluation of small-scale piggeries in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Manchidi, M. J. (2009-03)

Thesis (MPhil (Animal Sciences. Livestock Industry Management: Pig Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This mini-thesis describes the pig industry in South Africa which consists of a commercial intensive sector and an extensive sector that is also known as the small scale sector. Challenges in such as, marketing, feed, housing and genetics of small scale farmers are discussed. The objective of this study is to identify the problems experienced by the emerging/small scale pig farmers and to benchmark the production parameters of these farmers. Data was collected using questionnaires, telephone and site visits to farms/projects. The data collection was grouped into descriptions of small scale piggeries, feeding strategies, management programs, production parameters, regional constraints, marketing, comparisons between stud and commercial piggeries. The results were arranged into the following manner: general, regional constraints, description of small scale piggery facilities, feeding strategies of small scale farmers, management programs in small scale piggeries, production parameters of small scale piggeries in the Limpopo province, production parameters of stud and commercial piggeries, and the management strategy in a commercial piggery. Those piggeries having 5-30 sow units were interviewed. Results indicate that small scale farmers were found not to be sustainable in their production. The small scale farmers have no understanding of the pig industry, genetics and breeding of pigs, feeding strategies, and marketing channels for pigs. Typical problems experienced are: marketing is only done once or twice a year and not regularly as with any commercial piggery – a main problem identified here was access to the formal market. Typical production problems experienced were long farrowing intervals, small litter sizes, late weaning periods and low weaning percentages. This was attributed not only to mismanagement but also to bad infrastructure. Small scale piggeries typically have low cost sty’s that have inadequate floors, walls, roofing and very few of the piggeries has sufficient fresh water. Another problem experienced was poor growth which could be directly linked to the nutrition of the pigs. Most of the feed fed consisted of kitchen waste as balanced diets were perceived to be too expensive whilst access to suppliers, and transport (of both feed and pigs off to market) was generally lacking. Another major problem identified by the producers was insufficient scientific help from Government. Most producers also mentioned that they would welcome a mentorship program and help with the marketing and sourcing of funds. None the less, the pig owners all indicated that they wish to continue farming with pigs and that with the right help, they would be able to be successful.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie werkstuk beskryf die vark industrie in Suid-Afrika wat bestaan uit ‘n kommersiële intensiewe en ekstensiewe sektor wat ook bekend staan as die klein-skaal sektor. Uitdagings soos bemarking, voer, behuising en genetika van klein-skaalse boere word bespreek. Die doel van die studie is om die probleme te identifiseer wat ervaar word deur die opkomende/klein-skaalse boere asook om die produksie-parameters van die boere te bepaal. Data was versamel deur middel van vraelyste, telefoonoproepe asook besoeke aan die boere/projekte. Die dataversameling was op verdeel in beskrywings van klein-skaalse vark eenhede, voerstrategieë, bestuursprogramme, produksie-parameters, distriksbeperkings, bemarking, en vergelykings tussen stoet- en kommersiële-eenhede. Die resultate was gesorteer op die volgende manier: algemeen, distriksbeperkings, beskrywing van klein-skaalse varkeenhede, produksie-parameters van klein-skaalse varkeenhede in die Limpopoprovinsie, produksieparameters van stoet- en kommersiële varkeenhede, en die bestuurstrategie in ’n kommersiële varkeenheid. Ondehoude is gevoer met dié eenhede wat tussen 5-30 soê het. Resultate wys dat klein-skaalse boere nie volhoubaar is in hul produksie nie. Die klein-skaalse boere het geen kennis van die vark bedryf, genetika en teel van varke, voerstrategieë en bemarking van varke nie. Tipiese probleme wat ervaar word is: bemarking word slegs een of twee keer per jaar gedoen en nie gereeld soos met kommersiële eenhede nie – die hoof probleem wat geïdentifiseer is die toegang tot die formele mark. Tipiese produksieprobleme wat hier geïdentifiseer is, was lang kraam intervalle, klein werpsel groottes, laat speenperiodes en lae speenpersentasies. Dit was as gevolg van nie net misbestuur nie, maar ook as gevolg van slegte infrastruktuur. Klein-skaalse vark eenhede het gewoontlik goedkoop varkhokke met onvoldoende bevloering, mure, en dakke en baie min van die eenhede het genoegsame vars water gehad. Nog ’n probleem wat ondervind is, was die slegte groei van die varke wat direk gekoppel kan word aan die voeding van die varke. Meeste van die voer het bestaan uit kombuisvullis omdat gebalanseerde rantsoene beskou was as te duur, terwyl daar oor die algemeen ’n te kort was aan toegang tot verskaffers en vervoer (van beide voer en varke na die mark). Nog ’n groot probleem wat geïdentifiseer is deur die produsente was dat daar ’n tekort is aan wetenskaplike hulp van die Regering. Meeste van die produsente het ook genoem dat hul ’n mentorskapprogram sal verwelkom asook hulp met bemarking en befondsing. Nie te min, die varkeienaars het almal aangetoon dat hul graag met die varkboerdery sou wil aangaan en dat met die regte hulp sou hul suksesvol kan wees.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4072
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