The development and testing of recipes for patients with chronic renal failure

Conradie, Nelene (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-03)

Thesis (MNutr (Human Nutrition))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background Patients with chronic renal failure must deal not only with the disease itself, but also have to follow a strict dietary regimen. In South Africa there is currently a great demand for new and updated recipes based on the South African Renal Exchange Lists. The focus of this research was the development and testing of recipes commonly used by renal patients following a westernised diet. Objectives The main objectives of the study were to develop and test recipes that meet the nutritional requirements of patients with chronic renal failure. The secondary objectives were to determine the gender and racial differences in participants’ responses during consumer sensory testing. Methodology The study population consisted of patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis from Tygerberg Academic Hospital (TAH). Data was collected in three phases, using census sampling: Phase 1 included the development and adaptation of recipes to suit the renal diet. Phase 2 included the consumer sensory testing of the recipes by the dialysis patients, using the 9-point hedonic scale. Phase 3 included the rating of the recipes, the final nutritional analysis and allocation of renal exchanges to one portion of each recipe, as well as the final formatting of the recipe to make it more user-friendly for the renal patient. Results In total, 45 patients took part in the sensory evaluation of 30 recipes. Eighty percent of the subjects were coloured, 4% were white while 16% were black. Fifty-one percent (n=23) were female and 49% (n=22) were male. Of the 30 recipes that were evaluated for overall acceptance, appearance, smell, texture and taste, only 7 were deemed unacceptable. Recipes were unacceptable when less than 80% of the study participants gave a mean overall score of more than 6. Significant differences in the overall acceptability scores were found between the male and female subgroups for the Fish and Vegetable Pie (p=0.031), Chicken Pilaf (p=0.008) and Date Fingers (p=0.002). The females showed a greater preference for these two main meals while the males showed a greater preference for the Date Fingers. Significant differences were found between the black and westernised subgroups for the Rice Salad (p=0.006), Wheat and Mushroom Casserole (p=0.022), Curried Wheat Salad (p=0.043) and the Coconut Ice (p=0.005), with the westernised subgroup showing a greater preference for the dishes than the black subgroup. Conclusion The 23 recipes that were acceptable to the study participants are recommended for inclusion in the RenalSmart Software programme. These recipes are suitable for patients following a westernised diet. It is proposed that recipes suitable for the black and Indian population must be developed in future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond Pasiënte met chroniese nierversaking moet nie net slegs die siektetoestand hanteer nie, maar moet ook ‘n streng dieet regime volg. Daar is huidiglik in Suid-Afrika ‘n groot behoefte vir nuwe en opgedateerde resepte gebasseer op die Suid-Afrikaanse Nier Ruillyste. Die fokus van hierdie navorsing was om resepte te ontwikkel en te toets wat algemeen ingeneem word deur nierversaking pasiënte wat ‘n westerse dieet volg. Doelwitte Die hoof doelwitte van die studie was om resepte te identifiseer en te toets wat voldoen aan die nutrisionele behoeftes van nierpasiënte met kroniese nierversaking. Die sekondêre doelwitte was om geslag en ras verskille in die deelnemers se reaksies tydens verbruiker sensoriese evaluering te bepaal. Metodologie Die studie populasie het bestaan uit pasiënte met chroniese nierversaking op hemodialise en aaneenlopende ambulatoriese peritoneale dialise van Tygerberg Akademiese Hospitaal (TAH). Data was versamel in drie fases deur gebruik te maak van sensus steekproeftrekking: Fase 1 het die ontwikkeling en aanpassings van die resepte, om dit toepaslik te maak vir die nier dieet, ingesluit. Fase 2 het die verbruiker sensoriese evaluering van die resepte deur die dialise pasiënte, met behulp van die 9-punt hedoniese skaal, ingesluit. Fase 3 het die klassifisering van die resepte, die finale nutrisionele analise en die toekenning van nier ruile per porsie van elke resep, sowel as die finale formatering om die resep meer gebruikersvriendelik te maak vir die nierpasiënt, ingesluit. Resultate In totaal het 45 pasiënte aan die sensoriese evaluering van die 30 resepte deelgeneem. Tagtig persent van die deelnemers was kleurling, 4% was wit en 16% was swart. Een en vyftig persent (n=23) was vroulik en 49% (n=22) was manlik. Van die 30 resepte wat geevalueer is vir algehele aanvaarding, voorkoms, reuk, tekstuur en smaak, was slegs 7 onaanvaarbaar gevind. Resepte is as onaanvaarbaar beskou indien minder as 80% van die deelnemers ‘n gemiddelde algehele telling van meer as 6 gegee het. Beduidende verskille in die algehele aanvaarbaarheid tellings is gevind tussen die mans en vroue vir die Vis en Groente Pastei (p=0.031), Hoender Pilaf (p=0.008) en Dadelvingers (p=0.002). Die vrouens het ‘n groter voorkeur vir die twee hoofgeregte getoon terwyl die mans ‘n groter voorkeur vir die Dadelvingers getoon het. Beduidende verskille is gevind tussen die swart en westerse sub-groepe vir die Rysslaai (p=0.006), Koring en Sampioen Kasserol (o=0.022), Kerrie Koringslaai (p=0.043) en die Klapperys (p=0.005), met die westerse sub-groep wat ‘n groter voorkeur vir dié geregte toon as die swartes. Gevolgtrekking Die 23 resepte wat aanvaarbaar gevind is sal voorgestel word om ingesluit te word in die RenalSmart Sagteware program. Die resepte is toepaslik vir pasiënte wat ‘n westerse dieet volg. Daar word voorgestel dat resepte toepaslik vir die swart en Indiër populasie ontwikkel word in toekomstige navorsing.

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