Modelling of a monostatic borehole radar antenna
Thesis (MScEng (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.
The successful operation of a pulsed monostatic borehole radar system requires that cur- rent on the antenna due to transmitter pulses subsides quickly. Deterioration of the radar antenna feed-point current settling times when deployed in water-¯lled boreholes showed that the radar system's performance is highly environmentally sensitive. Electromagnetic models are used to investigate this e®ect, since measuring the feed-point and radiative characteristics of an insulated antenna deployed in a borehole is practically impossible at present. A transmission line model for insulated antennas is utilized to model the borehole radar antenna in electrically dense media. Predicted input impedance values however do not correspond well to those from numerical ¯eld simulation software and the model is shown to be inadequate for modelling insulated antennas in environments of low conductivity. Radiated ¯eld results are however found to be accurate. A study of the feed-point and radiative characteristics of the borehole radar antenna in a range of di®erent borehole environment is performed using electromagnetic ¯eld simulation software. Results con¯rm that the borehole radar antenna has longer feed- point current settling times and degraded radiated pulse waveforms when deployed in water-¯lled boreholes. Simple lumped element networks with driving-port impedances approximately equal to antenna input impedances are synthesized from simulated input impedance results for a range of borehole environments. This allows diagnostics on the radar system to be performed in the laboratory, with the antenna load appearing as if the system were deployed in a borehole. The use of an antenna with distributed resistive and capacitive loading is proposed as a modi¯cation that would result in improved feed-point characteristics in water-¯lled boreholes. Results from simulations and experiments are presented that con¯rm that the new antenna design substantially reduces feed-point current settling times after the transmitter ¯res.