A multi-group structural equation modelling investigation of the measurement invariance of the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) across gender groups in South Africa

Donnelly, Clayton (2009-12)

Thesis (MComm (Industrial Psychology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The choice of career path could create a stressful situation for many individuals. Researchers seem to agree that if a person is able to find fit between what they would like to do and what a job (work environment) involves then a person is likely to perform their chosen occupation well. Interest assessment is a method that assists in making personal and organisational career related decisions. The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS, Campbell, Hyne & Nilsen, 1992) is a well-known interest assessment instrument that can be used for such decisions. Even though interest assessment can assist, these instruments have been criticised for being gender biased and typically forcing people into stereotypical gendered type occupations. Bias is indicated as nuisance factors that threaten the validity of cross-group (cultural) comparisons (Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997). These nuisance factors could be due to construct bias, method bias and/or item bias. Therefore, due to the importance of the decisions made, it would seem essential that the information provided by test results apply equally across different reference groups – this would imply equivalent measurement. Equivalence is achieved at three levels: Configural, metric and scalar (Vandenberg & Lance, 2000; Vandenberg, 2002). Full measurement invariance (achieved when scalar invariance is found) implies the ability to compare observed scores directly. By making use of confirmatory factor analytic techniques suggested by Vandenberg and Lance (2000), increasing constraints of equivalence were proposed for the CISS measurement model. While adequate model fit was found for the CISS Basic scales, the sample size did not afford independent gender sample confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and consequent measurement invariance tests to be conducted on the Basic scales. The CISS Orientation scales were then subjected to CFA on the combined gender sample and then were subjected to independent CFAs on the separate gender samples. Unfortunately poor model fit was found at this global level of measurement in the CISS. This prevented the researcher from completing the necessary measurement invariance tests on the Orientation scales for the CISS. The implications of the results are discussed, limitations are indicated and areas for further research are highlighted.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die maak van ‘n loopbaankeuse kan spanning veroorsaak in baie mense. Dit wil voorkom of navorsers saamstem dat indien ‘n person se werklike beroep ooreenstem met dit wat hy/sy graag sou wou doen – dan sal die persoon waarskynlik goed presteer in die gekose beroep. Die benutting van belangstellingsvraelyste kan individue help om effektiewe persoonlike en beroepsgerigte keuses te maak. Die “Campbell Interest and Skill Survey” (CISS, Campbell, Hyne & Nilsen, 1992) is ‘n bekende belangstellingsvraelys wat gebruik kan word om ondersteuning te bied om bogenoemde keuses te maak. Alhoewel belangstellingsvraelyste oor die algemeen waardevolle hulpbronne is in die maak van beroepskeuses, is hierdie vraelyste al gekritiseer dat hulle sydig kan wees op grond van geslag en as sulks mense kan lei om geslagsgetipeerde beroepskeuses te maak. “Sydigheid” in toetse kan beskryf word as “lastige” faktore wat die geldigheid van kruiskulturele vergelykings bedreig (Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997). Hierdie faktore kan veroorsaak word deur konstruksydigheid, metodesydigheid en/of itemsydigheid. Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat die informasie wat verskaf word deur die toetsresultate dieselfde betekenis moet hê oor al die verskillende verwysingsgroepe en dit noodsaak ekwivalente meting. Ekwivalensie kan bereik word op drie vlakke: konfiguraal, metries en skalêr (Vandenberg & Lance, 2000; Vandenberg, 2002). Volle invariansie van meting (wat bereik word wanneer skalêre invariansie bevind word) impliseer dat waargenome metings direk met mekaar vergelyk kan word. Deur gebruik te maak van bevestigende faktoranalitiese tegnieke voorgestel deur Vandenberg en Lance (2000), is toenemende ekwivalensiebeperkinge voorgestel vir die “CISS” metingsmodel. Alhoewel ’n bevredigende passing gevind is vir die “CISS Basic scales” model, het die grootte van die steekproef nie toegelaat dat die “CISS Basic scales” model onafhanklik op die twee geslagsgroepe gepas word nie en ook nie toegelaat dat die metingsinvariansie van die model oor die twee geslagsgroepe ondersoek word nie. Die “CISS Orientation scales” is toe blootgestel aan bevestigende faktorontleding op die gekombineerde geslagsteekproef en asook op die onderskeie geslagsgroepe. Op hierdie globale vlak kon daar egter nie bevredigende modelpassing gevind word nie. Die gebrekkige modelpassing het gevolglik die navorser verhoed om enige verdere metingsvariansie toetse op die “Orientation scales” te doen. Die implikasies van die resultate word bespreek, beperkinge word aangedui en verdere moonlike navorsingsgebiede word uitgelig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2387
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