Screening and characterisation of wine related enzymes produced by wine associated lactic acid bacteria
Thesis (Msc (Viticulture and Oenology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.
Among the factors contributing to wine complexity and quality, wine aroma is one of the most important factors. Wine aroma is the outcome of interaction among different compounds produced from the grapes, during fermentation as well as during the ageing process. Apart from its origin from grapes, fungi and yeasts, wine aroma can also be derived from the metabolic activity of wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These microorganisms are usually associated with malolactic fermentation (MLF) which normally occurs after alcoholic fermentation. MLF is beneficial to wine due to its contribution to deacidification, microbiological stabilisation and wine aroma formation, with the latter being the most important area of interest in our study. The production of volatile aromatic components in wine can, in part, be achieved through the hydrolytic action of enzymes produced by LAB associated with wine. These enzymes include β-glucosidase, protease, esterase, lipase and glucanase. Most of the work done on bacterial enzymes has been on LAB from food sources other than wine, in which these enzymes contribute to the flavour development of some cheeses, yoghurt and other fermented foods. The activity of these enzymes during wine fermentation has mostly been concerned with β-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni. Only in recent years has there been a renewed interest in evaluating the activity of β-glucosidase in other genera of wine LAB. The overriding goal of this study was to screen and characterise wine-related enzymes produced by LAB associated with wine. All the LAB isolates tested in this study were obtained from IWBT culture collection and were previously isolated from five different wineries situated in the Western Cape region, South Africa. We first screened isolates using classical methods. The isolates were grown on agar medium supplemented with appropriate substrate analogues in order to evaluate the activity of enzymes (i.e. β- glucosidase, glucanase, lipase and esterase). The colonies exhibiting enzymatic activity ...