Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain)
Severe decline of almond trees has recently been observed in several orchards on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean Sea). However, the identity of the causal agents has not yet been investigated. Between August 2008 and June 2010, wood samples from branches of almond trees showing internal necroses and brown to black vascular streaking were collected in the Llevant region on the island of Mallorca. Several fungal species were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. Five species of Botryosphaeriaceae (namely Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia olivarum, D. seriata, Neofusicoccum australe and N. parvum), Eutypa lata, Phaeoacremonium iranianum and Phomopsis amygdali were identified based on morphology, culture characteristics and DNA sequence comparisons. Neofusicoccum parvum was the dominant species, followed by E. lata, D. olivarum and N. australe. First reports from almond include D. olivarum and Pm. iranianum. Two species are newly described, namely Collophora hispanica sp. nov. and Phaeoacremonium amygdalinum sp. nov. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.