The relationship between anthropometry and respiratory muscle function in land- and water-based athletes

Carten, Cecile (2007-12)

Thesis (MASpor)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to gain more information on respiratory muscle function of team sports. This was achieved by determining the relationship between anthropometry and respiratory muscle function and the relationship between respiratory muscle function and exercise performance. The degree of respiratory muscle fatigue after a speed endurance test on land and in water was also determined. A total of 62 subjects were tested. The group consisted of 14 netball players (age: 20.9 ± SD 2.0 years; height: 172.5 ± SD 6.1cm and weight: 66.6 ± SD 7.8 kg); 15 rugby players (age: 21.7 ± SD 2.2 years; height: 183.1 ± SD 7.3cm and weight: 92.5 ± SD 13.2 kg); 12 male swimmers (age: 18.9 ± SD 2.5 years; height: 183.3 ± SD 6.5cm and weight: 77.2 ± SD 8.6 kg); 8 female swimmers (age: 17.8 ± SD 1.6 years; height: 168.3 ± SD 5.4cm and weight: 63.9 ± SD 9.8 kg); 7 male control subjects (age: 21.4 ± SD 1.5 years; height: 179.7 ± SD 5.0cm and weight: 80.8 ± SD 10.8 kg) and 6 female control subjects (age: 21.5 ± SD 1.5 years; height: 166.9 ± SD 6.5cm and weight: 60.2 ± SD 6.7 kg). Testing included anthropometric measurements, lung function (FVC test), and respiratory muscle function (baseline MIP, MEP, MVV). Netball -, rugby players and the control subjects performed a speed endurance test on land and the swimmers performed a speed endurance test in the swimming pool. This test was followed by a second MIP measurement 60 and 120 seconds after the sprint endurance test. Respiratory muscle strength showed no correlations to anthropometry for men and women. For men, height, weight, sitting height, biiacromiale breath and waist girth accounted for 17% of the variance in MIP (P = 0.34). The variance in MEP was accounted for 15.6% by height, weight, sitting height, biacromiale breath and waist girth (P = 0.41). For women, weight, sitting height, arm span, biacromiale breath and chest girth accounted for 28.4% of the variance in MIP (P = 0.17), but MEP was accounted for only 22% by sitting height, arm length, arm span and body mass index as well as chest girth (P = 0.32). Respiratory muscle endurance showed correlations to certain anthropometry variables and had a significant regression equations for MVV in men: -312.51 + (2.83 x Arm span) – (0.38 x Sum of 8 skinfolds) and arm span and sum of eight skinfolds accounted for 47.3% of the variance in MVV. Women’s MVV also had a significant regression (P = 0.002): - 106.7 + (1.5 x Body mass) + (1.0 x Arm span) – (0.2 x Sum of 8skinfolds) and weight, arm span and sum of eight skinfolds accounted for 45% of the variance in MVV. Only MIP and MEP had significant correlations (r = 0.63, P < 0.01 and r = 0.66, P < 0.02 respectively) to the speed endurance test on land. Although significant, MVV and FVC showed no correlations to the speed endurance test. Both MIP and MEP had a correlation to the speed endurance test in the water (r = -0.55, P < 0.02 for both). FVC also had a correlation to the speed endurance test, although it was not significant (r = -0.51, P < 0.44). MVV had a poor correlation to the speed endurance test. Sixty seconds after the speed endurance test the land –based group’s (netball and rugby players grouped together) RM were 14.39% fatigued compared to the 9.04% of the water – based group (swimmers) and 41.02% of the control group. One hundred and twenty seconds after the sprint endurance test the land –based group’s RM were 8.43 fatigued compared to the 3.54% of the water –based group and the 24.64% of the control group. In conclusion, anthropometry plays a moderate role in RM endurance but even a smaller role in RM strength. The relationship between RM functions and the speed endurance test varied between the land – and water –based groups, but certain RM function can play a moderate role in the performance in this speed endurance test. All the groups experienced fatigue after the speed endurance test, but the degree was more in the control group followed by the land –based athletes compared to the water –based athletes. This indicates that stronger RM function can lead to less RM fatigue.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die respiratoriese spier funksies van span sporte te bestudeer en is gedoen deur na die verband tussen respiratoriese spier funksies en antropometrie, die verband tussen respiratoriese spier funksies en oefen prestasie en die mate van respiratoriese spier uitputting na oefening te kyk. ‘n Totaal van 62 subjekte is getoets. Die groep het bestaan uit 14 netbal (ouderdom: 20.9 ± SD 2.0 jaar; lengte: 172.5 ± SD 6.1cm en gewig: 66.6 ± SD 7.8 kg); 15 rugbyspelers (ouderdom: 21.7 ± SD 2.2 jaar; lengte: 183.1 ± SD 7.3cm en gewig: 92.5 ± SD 13.2 kg); 12 mans swemmers (ouderdom: 18.9 ± SD 2.5 jaar; length: 183.3 ± SD 6.5cm and gewig: 77.2 ± SD 8.6 kg); 8 dames swemmers (ouderdom: 17.8 ± SD 1.6 jaar; lengte: 168.3 ± SD 5.4cm and gewig: 63.9 ± SD 9.8 kg); 7 mans kontrole subjekte (ouderdom: 21.4 ± SD 1.5 jaar; lengte: 179.7 ± SD 5.0cm and gewig: 80.8 ± SD 10.8 kg) and 6 dames kontrole subjekte (age: 21.5 ± SD 1.5 years; height: 166.9 ± SD 6.5cm and weight: 60.2 ± SD 6.7 kg). Toetsing het die volgende ingesluit: Antropometriese meetings, long funksies en respiratoriese spier funksies (basislyn maksimale inspirasie drukking (MID), maksimale ekspirasie drukking (MED), maksimale willekeuring ventilasie (MWV)). ‘n Spoed uithouvermoë toets op land is deur die netbal –, rugbyspelers en die kontrole subjekte en ‘n uitgevoer en ‘n spoed uithouvermoë toets in die water is deur die swemmers uitgevoer. Beide hierdie toetse is gevolg deur ‘n tweede en derde maksimale inspirasie drukking 60 en 120 sekondes na die toets. Geen korrelasies is gevind tussen antropometrie en respiratoriese spier sterkte vir beide mans en dames. In die geval van mans, het lengte, gewig, bolyf lengte, bi- akromiale breedte en die omtrek van die middel 17% uitgemaak van die variansie in MIP (P = 0.34). Die variasie van MEP is uitgemaak deur 15.6% van lengte, gewig, bolyf lengte, biakromiale lengte en die omtrek van die middel (P = 0.41). Vir dames het gewig, bolyf length, arm reikwydte, bi –akromiale breedte en bors omtrek ’n 28.4% rol gespeel in die variansie van MIP (P = 0.17), maar die variasie in MEP is voorspel met 22% deur bolyf length, arm length, arm reikwydte, liggaams massa indeks en bors omtrek (P = 0.32). Respiratoriese spier uithouvermoê het ‘n korrelasie getoon met sekere antropometriese veranderlikes en ‘n statisties beduidende vergelyking vir mans MWV: -312.51 + (2.83 x Arm reikwydte) – (0.38 x Som van 8 velvoue) waar arm reikwydte en som van ag velvoue was verantwoordelik vir 47.3% van die variansie in MWV. Die dames se MWV het ook ‘n statisties beduidende vergelyking getoon: MWV = -106.7 + (1.5 x gewig) + (1.0 x Arm reikwydte) – (0.2 x Som van 8 velvoue) waar gewig, arm reikwydte en die som van ag velvoue verantwoordelik was vir 45% van die variansie in MWV. Slegs MID en MED het statisties beduidende korrelasies ( onderskeidelik r = 0.63, P < 0.01 and r = 0.66, P < 0.02 ) getoon met die spoed uithouvermoë toets op land. Geen korrelasie is tussen MWV en die geforseerde vitale kapasiteit toetse gevind al was die verband statistiese beduidend. Beide MID en MED het ’n korrelasie met die spoed uithouvermoë toets in die water getoon (r = -0.55, P < 0.02 vir beide). Die geforseerde vitale kapasiteit toets het ook ’n korrelasie met die spoed uithouvermoë toets, tog was dit nie statisties beduidend nie (r = -0.51, P < 0.44). MWV het geen korrelasie getoon met die spoed uithouvermoë toets op land. Sestig sekondes na die spoed uithouvermoë toets is ’n 14.39 % respiratoriese spier uitputting in die land gebaseerde groep (netbal – en rugby spelers), 9.04% respiratoriese spier uitputting in die water gebaseerde groep (swemmers) en ’n 41.02% respiratoriese spier uitputting in die kontrole groep gevind. Na 120 sekondes was die respiratoriese spiere van die land gebaseerde groep steeds 8.43% uitgeput in vergelyking met die 3.54% van die water gebaseerde groep en die 24.64% van die kontrole groep. Dus speel antropometrie ‘n matige rol in respiratories spier uithouvermoë en selfs ‘n kleiner rol in respiratoriese spier sterkte. Die verband tussen respiratoriese spier funksies en die spoed uithouvermoë toets het gevarieer tussen die land – en die water gebaseerde groepe, maar respiratoriese spier funksies kan ‘n matige rol speel in die voorspelling van die prestasie in die spoed uithouvermoë toets. Die kontrole groep het meer respiratoriese spier uitputting ervaar na die spoed uithouvermoë toets, dus beteken dit dat geoefende en ongeoefend persone respiratoriese spier uitputting sal ervaar.

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