Antioxidant (Oxiprovin TM) supplementation and muscle recovery from contusion injury - an in vivo study

Kruger, Maria Jacoba (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-12)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Human studies on the response of muscle to contusion injury are limited, probably due to the large variability in injury severity and the non-specificity of clinical symptoms reported. To circumvent this problem, several experimental animal models have been designed to study muscle damage and regeneration after contusion injuries. However, the majority of techniques currently used to induce contusion injury are very invasive and therefore not optimal. Furthermore, published studies regarding clinical treatment of such injuries are limited. The main aims of this study were therefore: a) to establish and characterise an in vivo model of non-invasive contusion injury, and b) to assess the effect of pre-injury chronic administration of the antioxidant supplement Oxiprovin™ - a natural grape seed extract (GSE) - on skeletal muscle recovery after experimentallyinduced injury. Two groups of male Wistar rats were subjected to 14 days of oral administration of isovolaemic placebo (sterile isotonic saline) or GSE (20 mg/kg/day) prior to induced contusion. Contusion injury was induced with the mass-drop technique, and recovery parameters assessed for up to 14 days post-injury. Placebotreated rats on average exhibited a 56 % higher creatine kinase (CK) activity when compared to the GSE-treated rats when area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for 14 days post-injury (p < 0.001). In the placebo group, plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was unchanged over time, but muscle ORAC was significantly increased by day 7 post-injury (p < 0.001). In the GSE group, a significant decrease in both plasma (p < 0.01) and muscle ORAC (p < 0.001) was evident 4 hr after injury, followed by a significant increase by day 3 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively). CD34+ satellite cell (SC) numbers (quiescent and activated) peaked earlier in GSE-treated rats when compared to placebo-treated rats (4 hours vs. day 7 post-injury). Total satellite cell number (CD56+) also peaked earlier in GSE-treated rats than in placebo-treated rats (4 hours vs. 3 days post-injury), while M-cadherin+ SC numbers (quiescent, activated or proliferating) in both treatment groups were significantly increased 4 hours post-injury (p < 0.001), but more so in the placebo group. In GSE-treated rats when compared to placebo-treated rats, newly generated muscle fibres (displaying central nuclei and MHCf +) both appeared (day 3 vs. day 7 post-injury) and peaked in number (day 3 vs. day 7 post-injury; increase from baseline p < 0.001 for both) earlier. The results of this study demonstrate that we have successfully established an in vivo model for non-invasive contusion injury in rats. Furthermore, we have shown that Oxiprovin™: a) increased the ability to scavenge reactive species generated after injury and b) resulted in the activation of satellite cells and formation of newly generated muscle fibres at an earlier time point, thus accelerating the recovery of skeletal muscle after a standardised contusion injury.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Eksperimente aangaande die reaksie van spier op kneusings in mense is beperk, waarskynlik as gevolg van die groot verskeidenheid simptome wat mag voorkom en die verskille in die ernstigheid van beserings. Ten einde hierdie problem te oorbrug, is verskeie eksperimentele diermodelle opgestel om kneusings en die herstel van spier daarna te ondersoek. Die tegnieke wat grootendeels vandag gebruik word om kneusings te veroorsaak, maak inbraak op die spier deur die spier te ontbloot voor besering, en is dus nie ideaal nie. Daar is ook nie baie bewyse aangaande die mees geskikte manier om so ‘n besering klinies te behandel nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus om: a) ‘n in vivo model van kneusings op te stel en te omskryf, en b) die effek van chroniese toediening van die antioksidant Oxiprovin™ - ‘n natuurlike druifsaad ekstrak (DSE) – op die herstel van skeletspier na ‘n kneusing te ondersoek. Twee groepe manlike Wistar rotte is onderwerp aan mondelikse toediening van isovolemiese plasebo (steriele isotoniese soutoplossing) of DSE (20 mg/kg/dag) vir ‘n tydperk van 14 dae voor kneusing. Kneusing is geïnduseer met die “massdrop” tegniek, en parameters van herstel is ondersoek tot en met 14 dae na besering. Plasebo-behandelde rotte het gemiddeld 56 % hoër kreatien kinase (KK) aktiwiteit in vergelyking met DSE-behandelde rotte (p < 0.001), toe die oppervlak onder die kurwe (OOK) tot en met 14 dae na besering bereken is. Geen verskil oor tyd is in die plasebo groep opgemerk toe plasma suurstof radikaal absorpsie kapasiteit (SRAK) bepaal is nie, maar ‘n betekenisvolle toename in spier SRAK teen dag 7 (p < 0.001) is waargeneem. ‘n Betekenisvolle afname in beide plasma (p < 0.01) en spier (p < 0.001) SRAK van die DSE is teen 4 hr waargeneem, gevolg deur ‘n betekenisvolle toename teen dag 3 na besering (p < 0.05 en p < 0.001 onderskeidelik). Die aantal CD34+ satelliet selle (SS – rustend en geaktiveerd) het beduidend vroeër in die DSE groep gestyg in vergelyking met die plasebo groep (4 uur vs. 7 dae na besering). Die totale aantal SS (CD56+) het ook vroeër in die DSE-behandelde rotte as die plasebobehandelde rotte gestyg (4 uur vs. 3 dae na besering), terwyl die aantal Mcadherin+ SS (rustend, geaktiveerd of prolifererend) betenisvol gestyg het in beide groepe teen 4 uur (p < 0.001) na besering, maar hoër in die plasebo groep was. Die aantal nuutgevormde spiervesels (met sentraal geleë nukleï en MHCf +) het beide vroeër verskyn en gepiek in die DSE-behandelde rotte in vergelyking met die plasebo-behandelde rotte (dag 3 vs. dag 7 na besering). Die resultate van hierdie studie dui aan dat ons instaat was om ‘n in vivo model van nie-indringende kneusing in rotte op te stel. Verder, het ons ook bewys dat Oxiprovin™ toediening die vermoë verleen het om: a) reaktiewe spesies wat na beserings gevorm word, meer doeltreffend te verwyder en b) satelliet selle vroeër te aktiveer en die vorming van nuwe skeletspiervesels te vervroeg, om sodoende die herstel van skeletspier na ‘n gestandardiseerde kneusing vinniger te bewerkstellig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/21670
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