Die aard van borgverrigtinge met spesifieke verwysing na die toepassing van die reels van die bewysreg op sodanige verrigtinge

Hendriks, Renette (2004-04)

Thesis (LLM) -- Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: When evaluating a bail application, the court must take into consideration the interests of the accused against those of the community. The main goal of this assessment is to find a balance between said interests. While an application for bail is made at a stage where guilt has not been proven, it is of extreme importance that the court must not infringe on the fundamental rights of the accused which include the right to personal freedom and the presumption of innocence. In order to protect the rights of the bail applicant within the proper functioning of the legal system, it is important to determine the nature of bail proceedings. As shown in this thesis, bail proceedings are sui gelleris in nature, which means that a separate set of rules of the law of evidence is applicable to these proceedings. The object of this thesis is to identify the rules of law of evidence applicable to bail proceedings as well as to clarify the deviation from the normal rules of evidence which apply to the trial of the accused. In chapter one the purpose and nature of bail proceedings as well as the characteristics of accusatorial and inquisitorial systems, are discussed. Problem areas within the South African legal system with regards to bail applications are also highlighted in this chapter. In chapter two the application of the primary rules of the law of evidence with regards to bail proceedings are investigated as well as the admissibility of evidence pertaining to prior convictions of the applicant, opinion evidence and character evidence. In chapter three the admissibility of hearsay evidence at bail proceedings is discussed. The constitutionality of the privilege pertaining to the police docket is dealt with in chapter four. Chapter five deals with the infom1er's privilege. The requirements that have to be met in order to qualify for protection under the said privilege, are examined. Chapter six focuses on the privilege against self-incrimination and the manner In which it is applied in bail proceedings. The provisions of s 60(11B)(c) of the Criminal Procedure Act and the role of the presiding officer are also discussed in this chapter. Chapter seven focuses on the burden of proof in bail applications. Chapter eight contains a summary and recommendations.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die beoordeling van 'n borgaansoek moet die hof die be lange van die beskuldigde en die belange van die samelewing teen mekaar opweeg. Die doel van die betrokke verrigtinge is om 'n balans tussen hierdie belange te vind. Omdat borgtog ter sprake kom op 'n tydstip waar daar nog geen skuldigbevinding is nie, is dit van kardinale belang dat die hof ten aile tye moet waak teen die onregverdige inbreukmaking op die beskuldigde se fundamentele regte wat onder andere die reg op individuele vryheid en die vem10ede van onskuld insluit. Ten einde die regte van die borgaansoeker na behore te beskem1 sonder om die behoorlike funksionering van die regstelsel te belemmer, is dit belangrik om vas te stel wat die aard van borgverrigtinge is. Soos in hierdie tesis aangetoon word, is borgverrigtinge sui generis van aard. Dit het tot gevolg dat daar 'n aparte stel reels van die bewysreg bestaan wat op hierdie verrigtinge van toepassing is. In hierdie tesis word daar gepoog om die reels van die bewysreg wat op borgverrigtinge van toepassing is, te identifiseer en om die afwykings van die gewone bewysregreels wat op die verhoor van toepassing is, te verklaar. In hoofstuk een word die doel en aard van borgverrigtinge bespreek en word die kenmerke van die akkusatoriale en inkwisitoriale stelsels teen mekaar gestel. Die onduidelikhede oor die aard van borgverrigtinge in die Suid-Afrikaanse reg word ook aangeraak. In hoofstuk twee word die toepassing van die relevantheidsgrondreel by borgverrigtinge ondersoek, asook die toelaatbaarheid van getuienis oor die vorige veroordelings van die beskuldigde, opiniegetuienis en karaktergetuienis. Hoofstuk drie het betrekking op die toelaatbaarheid van hoorsegetuienis by borgverrigtinge. In hoofstuk vier word kwessies rakende dossierprivilegie behandel en die grondwetlikheid van sodanige privilegie, asook die toepassing daarvan, word van naderby beskou. In hoofstuk vyf word daar gefokus op die aanbrengersprivilegie. Die aard en toepassing van die privilegie asook die vereistes waaraan voldoen moet word alvorens daar op die betrokke privilegie gesteun kan word, word aangeraak. Hoofstuk ses fokus op die borgapplikant se privilegie teen selfinkriminasie. Die bepalings van a 60(11 B)(c) asook die rol van die voorsittende beampte word ook in hierdie hoofstuk aangespreek. Die sewende kwessie wat in verband met borgverrigtinge in die stu die ondersoek word, is die ligging van die bewyslas by sodanige verrigtinge. Dit word In hoofstuk sewe gedoen. Hoofstuk agt bevat 'n opsomming van sowel bevindings as aanbevelings.

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