’n Voorgestelde reguleringsraamwerk vir pad- en spoorvragvervoer in Suid-Afrika

Pienaar, Wessel J. (AOSIS OpenJournal, 2007)

The original publication is available at http://www.satnt.ac.za

Article

The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore) in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce), some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following: Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of land freight transport activity in South Africa will be offered within the framework of a free-functioning freight transport market.

Die toenemende aantal swaar goederevoertuie op Suid-Afrika se buitestedelike padnetwerk ontlok aansienlike aandag. Aantygings kom steeds hardnekkig voor dat langafstand-padvragvervoer van ongure ekonomiese aard is en dat streng ekonomiese herregulering van die bedryf nodig is. Gedurende die jare 1970 het padvervoer in Suid-Afrika spoorvervoer vervang as die oorheersende vorm van vragvervoer oor lang afstande (minerale en erts uitgesluit). Op langafstand- deurskofte vervoer padvragkarweiers sekere primêre goedere van ’n organiese aard (soos bosbou- , vissery- en landbouprodukte), sommige halfklaar goedere, heelwat klaar goedere en die meeste verbruikersware. Padvragkarweiers wen voortdurend markaandeel op langafstandroetes waar spoorvervoer die koste-doelmatigste modus is. Die groter waarde wat padvragkarweiers deur beter diensdoel- treffendheid in vergelyking met spoorvervoer bied, oorskry dikwels die kostepremie wat betaal word vir vragvervoerdiens per pad eerder as per spoor. Deur die geskiedenis heen was owerhede betrokke by vervoer. ’n Uiteenlopende reeks argumente is met die verloop van tyd voorgehou vir hierdie betrokkenheid by vervoer, wat die onderstaande insluit: Beheer van oormatige mededinging, koördinasie van vervoer, integrasie van vervoer met ekonomiese beleid, behoud van veiligheid, sekuriteit, en orde voorsiening van duursame infrastruktuur, voorsiening van openbare goedere, verhaling van die werklike hulpbronkoste van vervoerinsette, regulering van skadelike optrede en eksternaliteite, inkorting van monopoliemag, maatskaplike ondersteuning. ’n Stel van nege beleidsinstrumente kan geïdentifiseer word wat owerhede aanwend om die werkverrigting van die vervoerbedryf te beïnvloed: Wetgewing, regstreekse voorsiening, fiskale maatreëls, monetêre maatreëls, morele oorreding, beleid rakende strategiese kommoditeite, verkrygingsbeleid, voorsiening van inligting navorsing en ontwikkeling.’n Ekonomies vrye mark bied die beste vooruitsig vir die bevordering van sowel pad- as spoorvragaktiwiteite.

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