Logistieke aspekte van pypleidingvervoer in die voorsiening van petroleumprodukte

Pienaar, Wessel J. (AOSIS OpenJournal, 2008)

The original publication is available at http://www.satnt.ac.za

Article

The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport: pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport; pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; and pipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity. Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals), gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. In South Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems: Gathering pipeline systems Crude oil trunk pipeline systems Refined products pipeline systems collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following activities are involved in the flow of goods between place of origin and place of consumption or application: Demand forecasting, Facility site selection, Procurement, Materials handling, Packaging, Warehouse management, Inventory management,Order processing, Logistics communications, Transport, Reverse logistics. Because cost is incurred without adding value each time goods are handled (activity 4) at a terminal or storage facility, a primary logistics objective is to eliminate handling wherever possible. With the carriage of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline this objective is fully met. Commodity intake, haulage, and discharge are combined in one process, usually a remote-controlled operation. Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport thereby obviating the need for packaging (activity 5) and returning empty containers. Pipelines provide a direct and long-term link between these origins and destinations. If necessary a continuous service can be provided with no need for a return trip or a reverse pumping process (activity 11). The elimination of handling, packaging and reverse logistics activities contribute substantially to the high measure of economies of scale that pipeline transport enjoys. The article provides a description of each of the eleven logistics activities in the context of pipeline transport. Effective logistics service is a prerequisite to help ensure that customers receive the required products at the desired quality and quantity, where and when needed. The most pertinent determinants of logistics service performance are suitability, accessibility, goods security, transit time, reliability and flexibility. The article offers a discussion of the extent to which pipeline transport conforms to each of these measures of effectiveness.

Description Die kommersiële vervoer van ruolie en brandstofprodukte per pypleiding en die beoogde verdereinvestering in hierdie vervoermodus kry in Suid-Afrika toenemend aandag. Pypleidingvervoer is’n grootmaat-, nie-behoueringsmetode van vervoer van geskikte vloeistowwe (byvoorbeeld petroleumkommoditeite wat ruolie, brandstofprodukte en vloeibare petrochemikalieë insluit), aardgasen geflodderiseerde grondstowwe. In Suid-Afrika verteenwoordig brandstofprodukte die grootste deel van kommersiële pypleidingverkeer, gevolg deur ruolie en aardgas. Daar is drie basiese soorte petroleumpypleidingvervoerstelsels. Insamelingspypleidingstelsels Ruolie-hoofaarpypleidingstelsels Pypleidingstelsels vir geraffineerde produkte. Saam verskaf hierdie stelsels ’n aaneenlopende verbinding tussen ontginning, verwerking, verspreiding en groothandeldepots in verbruiksgebiede. Aangesien daar koste verbonde aan goederehantering by eindpunte en opbergingsfasiliteite is sonder dat dit waarde toevoeg tot die goedere, is dit ’n primêre oogmerk om hantering sovermoontlik uit te skakel. Met die vervoer van ruolie en brandstofprodukte per pypleiding word volkome aan hierdie oogmerk voldoen. Net die kommoditeit beweeg – die pypleiding verskaf die nodige omhulsel en beskerming van die kommoditeit. Indien nodig kan ’n volgehoue diens gelewer word sonder die noodsaaklikheid van ’n terugrit of ’n terugpomp-proses. Die uitskakeling van hantering, verpakking en terugwaartse logistieke aktiwiteite dra aansienlik by tot die skaalvoordele wat pypleidingvervoer geniet. Doeltreffende logistieke diens is ’n voorvereiste om te help verseker dat kliënte die verlangde goedere op die aangewese tyd by die bestemde plek in die vereiste toestand en hoeveelheid ontvang. Die vernaamste logistieke diensmaatstawwe is sgeskiktheid, toeganklikheid, goederesekuriteit, deurvoertyd, betroubaarheid, en buigsaamheid. Die artikel bied ’nuiteensetting van die mate waartoe pypleidingvervoer aan hierdie doeltreffendheidsmaatstawwevoldoen.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/21445
This item appears in the following collections: