Impact of freezing and thawing on the quality of meat: Review
This comprehensive review describes the effects of freezing and thawing on the physical quality parameters of meat. The formation of ice crystals during freezing damages the ultrastructure and concentrates the solutes in the meat which, in turn, leads to alterations in the biochemical reactions that occur at the cellular level and influence the physical quality parameters of the meat. The quality parameters that were evaluated are moisture loss, protein denaturation, lipid and protein oxidation, colour, pH, shear force and microbial spoilage. Additionally mechanisms employed to mitigate the effects of freezing and thawing were also reviewed. These include the use of novel methods of freezing and thawing, ante and post mortem antifreeze protein inclusion and vitamin E supplementation, brine injection and modified atmospheric packaging. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.