Consumer acceptance of a selection of South African red wines : intrinsic, extrinsic and socio-demographic influences

Basson, Shantelle (2012-03)

Thesis (MSc Food Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study an industry-selected and diverse range of South African red wines were analysed for sensory and chemical attributes, as well as degree of liking using a target group of black South African consumers. Segments of consumers that differed in degree of liking were then tested for their response to intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (non-sensory) cues. The selection of wines included eighteen dry and natural sweet red wines, representing low-end inexpensive wines together with high-end, top quality wines. Sensory profiles for all samples were established using Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The results revealed that cultivar specific dry red wines associated with a wide range of sensory descriptors such as woody, vegetative and fruity, while the sweet red wines associated with the fruity and sweet-associated attributes. Chemically there was a significant variation between wines regarding the alcohol and sugar content. Gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) indicated the major volatile constituents present in the wine, i.e. esters, alcohols and fatty acids. When investigating the association between the chemical and sensory data, it was revealed that the red blends were driven by the presence of alcohols and esters, and sensory descriptors such as high roast oak, coffee and mixed spice, whereas the red cultivar wines were mostly driven by fatty acids and esters and the sensory descriptors, green bean and asparagus. The sweet red blends were closely associated with acids and the sensory descriptors sweet-associated and floral. Degree of liking of a subset of 18 wines was investigated based on the preferences of black consumers from the Western Cape area, South Africa. These consumers predominantly preferred the sweet red wines with high sugar content, in a blind tasting session. Purchase intent was also evaluated by viewing actual photographs of packaging formats of the respective wines and the results indicated that the consumers preferred the well-known cultivar wines with a perception of value and style. Cluster analysis was furthermore performed to ascertain whether these consumers differed in their degree of liking of the intrinsic character of the respective wines. Four different clusters of consumers were identified: 1) Consumers preferring both dry and sweet red wines equally, 2) Consumers who strongly favoured sweet red wines and moderately liked dry red wines, 3) Consumers who strongly favoured sweet red wines with little preference for dry red wines; and 4) Consumers preferring dry red wines. Consumers were also probed on their general opinions or perceptions on the extrinsic character of the wines, and thus factors that influence the purchasing process. It was found that black consumers who don‟t consume wine often, preferred wines that they are familiar with, while consumers that drink wine more frequently enjoy to broaden their horizons by experimenting with more expensive wine brands. Extrinsic or non-sensory cues such as alcohol content, label, vintage, price and cultivar were found to be the most important considered factors when purchasing red wines, while awards and type of closure were regarded as the least important. It was also found that the discerning consumers, who purchase high-end wines, took more of the latter aspects into consideration, whereas consumers who purchase low-end wines considered a limited number of the non-sensory cues.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie is 'n diverse reeks industrie-geselekteerde, Suid-Afrikaanse rooiwyne geanaliseer vir hul sensoriese en chemiese eienskappe. Verbruikersvoorkeur van die wyne is getoets, asook tot watter mate verbruikersvoorkeure beïnvloed word deur intrinsieke (sensoriese) en ekstrinsieke (nie-sensoriese) faktore. Die reeks van agtien wyne het bestaan uit droë en soet rooi wyne, wat op hul beurt verder verdeel kan word in goedkoper, kwaliteit wyne en duurder, ultra-premium wyne. Die sensoriese profiel van al die wyne is bepaal deur beskrywende sensoriese analise. Resultate het getoon dat die kultivar-spesifieke droë rooiwyne geassosieer word met 'n wye reeks sensoriese eienskappe soos houtagtig, kruidagtig en vrugtig, terwyl die soet rooiwyne beskryf is as vrugtige en soet-geassosieerd. In terme van die chemiese analises was daar betekenisvolle verskille betreffende die alkohol- en suikerinhoud van die wyne. Gas chromatografie gekoppel met vlam-ioniserende deteksie (GC-FID) het die mees vlugtige verbindings teenwoordig in die wyn aangedui, naamlik esters, alkohole en vetsure. Met die korrelasie van die chemiese en sensoriese data is gevind dat die droë versnitwyne gedryf word deur die teenwoordigheid van alkohole en esters, asook sensoriese eienskappe soos gehout, koffie, en gemengde spesery, terwyl die kultivar-spesieke wyne weer meestal gedryf word deur vetsure en esters en sensoriese eienskappe soos groenboontjie en aspersie. Die soet rooiwyne het chemies geassosieer met sure en sensoriese terme soos soet-geassosieerd en blomagtig. Die aanvaarbaarheid van 'n kleiner groepering wyne is bepaal deur gebruik te maak van swart verbruikers in die Wes-Kaap area, Suid-Afrika. Die verbruikers het in 'n blinde proesessie onderskeie wyne se wynverpakking besigtig en aangedui of hulle die wyne sou koop. Hierdie resultate het getoon dat die verbruikers bekende kultivarwyne verkies wat 'n persepsie van waarde en styl geïllustreer het. Segmentasie tegnieke is op die data uitgevoer ten einde te bepaal of verbruikers in groepe verdeel kan word, wat betref hul voorkeur van die sensoriese of intrinsieke eienskappe van die wyne. Vier verskillende groepe is geïdentifiseer, nl. verbruikers wat 1) droë en soet rooiwyne ewe veel verkies; 2) soet rooiwyne en tot 'n mate ook droë rooiwyne verkies; 3) soet rooiwyne en tot 'n mindere mate droë rooiwyne verkies; en laastens 4) slegs droë rooiwyne verkies. Verbruikers se algemene opinies en persepsies betreffende die ekstrinsieke eienskappe van die wyne is ook ondersoek, met ander woorde faktore wat die aankoop van wyne beïnvloed. Daar is gevind dat swart verbruikers wat nie gereeld wyn drink, bekende handelsmerke verkies, terwyl verbruikers wat gereeld wyn drink, daarvan hou om hul horisonne te verbreed en te eksperimenteer met 'n verskeidenheid handelsmerke. Ekstrinsieke of nie-sensoriese aspekte soos, alkohol-inhoud, etiket, oesjaar, prys en kultivar is die belangrikste faktore wat in ag geneem word wanneer rooiwyne gekoop word, terwyl wyntoekennings en die feit dat die wyn met kurke gebotteleer word, nie as belangrik beskou word nie. Daar is ook gevind dat die meer ingeligte verbruiker, wat hoë kwaliteit wyne koop, meer van die bogenoemde aspekte in ag neem tydens die aankoopproses, terwyl die verbruiker wat meer geneig is om goedkoper wyne te koop, slegs 'n paar ekstrinsieke faktore in ag neem.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20380
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