Exclusive breastfeeding in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child : a systematic review

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dc.contributor.advisor Khondowe, Oswell en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Harper, Kim en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Phuti, Angel en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Nursing Science. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-15T09:16:04Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-30T11:04:05Z
dc.date.available 2012-03-15T09:16:04Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2012-03-30T11:04:05Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03-15 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20326
dc.description Thesis (MCurr)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV infection poses a major obstacle in breastfeeding as it represents the most common way by which children acquire HIV. Exclusive breastfeeding has been discovered as the most effective intervention in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, mortality and promotion of HIV free survival. The main objective was to evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of exclusive breastfeeding versus formula feeding and/ or mixed feeding in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child. To identify the studies, an electronic search was conducted using PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and EMBASE databases. Electronic journals, which include the Southern African Journal of HIV medicine (SAJHIV), HIV Medicine Journal and American Journal of Public Health, were also accessed. Manual searches were carried out. In addition, relevant experts were contacted in order to locate more data. There were no limitations with regards to date and language. The review considered studies on infants who were vertically HIV-1 exposed (mother HIV positive during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding). These infants were exclusively breastfed for six months with administration of antiretroviral prophylaxis and were compared to infants exclusively formula fed. The outcomes measured were vertically acquired HIV infection; mortality and HIV free survival up to 24 months of age. Two reviewers independently selected articles which met the inclusion criteria. They independently extracted the data using a data extraction tool. Disagreements were solved by discussion. Data was then meta-analysed using Rev Man 5.1.0. Methodological quality of each trial was assessed by the reviewers using the Cochrane assessment tool for risk of bias. Two randomised clinical trials and one intervention cohort study (n=2112 infants) comparing exclusive breastfeeding with exclusive formula feeding were included. HIV infection was associated with exclusive breastfeeding as compared with exclusive formula feeding (Risk ratio 1.67, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.23, p=0.0005). Exclusive formula feeding was associated with high mortality from infections (Risk ratio of 0.67 95% CI 0.43 to 0.83, p=0.002 Chi²= 1.30, p=0.52, I²=0%). There were no statistically significant differences in HIV free survival between exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula feeding as measured by trialists at 9, 18 and 24 months (Risk ratio 1.19, 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.54, p=0.19, Chi²= 3.15, p=0.21, I²=36 % 3 studies, 1012 infants). None of the studies included reported on mixed feeding. Complete avoidance of breastfeeding is effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. HIV infection during breastfeeding might be an indicator of mixed feeding and poor adherence. Formula feeding is only applicable in settings where formula milk is accessible, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable (AFASS) because formula feeding carries a high risk of mortality from causes other than HIV. If the AFASS criteria cannot be met, mothers should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed and ensure that their infants completely adhere to the antiretroviral prophylaxis because they decrease the rate of vertical HIV-1 transmission. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: MIV besmetting veroorsaak ‘n groot struikelblok vir borsvoeding, omdat dit die mees algemene manier is waarop babas met MIV besmet word. Eklusiewe borsvoeding is as die mees effektiewe intervensie ontdek in die voorkoming van moeder na kind oordrag van MIV, morbiditeit en die bevordering van MIV vrye oorlewing. Die hoofdoelwit is om die effektiwiteit van eksklusiewe borsvoeding teenoor formule-voeding en of gemengde voeding in die voorkoming van MIV oordrag van moeder na kind te evalueer. Elektroniese navorsing is gedoen deur gebruik te maak van PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHL, CENTRAL en EMBASE databasisse. Elektroniese joernale wat die Southern African Journal of HIV medicine (SAJHIV), HIV Medicine Journal and American Journal of Public Health insluit, is ook gebruik. Handnavorsing is ook gedoen, asook relevante data van kenners op die gebied, is verkry. Geen beperking is geplaas op taal of tyd nie. Studies op babas wat blootgestel is aan die MIV-1 (moeder MIV positief gedurende swangerskap en borsvoeding) is in die oorsig oorweeg. Hierdie babas is eksklusief vir 6 maande gerborsvoed, met of sonder anti-retrovirale behandeling, en is vergelyk met eksklusiewe formule-voeding. Die resultaat was dat almal tot op 24 maande gemeet is aan MIV besmetting, mortaliteit en MIV vrye oorlewing. Twee resensente het onafhanklik artikels geselekteer wat aan die ingeslote kriteria voldoen het. Hulle het onafhanklik data geselekteer deur van ’n selekteringsinstrument gebruik te maak. Misverstande is deur besprekings opgelos. Data was daarna gemeet en gemetaanaliseer deur Rev Man 5.1.0. Die metadologiese kwaliteit van elk proeflopie is geassesseer deur die resensente wat gebruik gemaak het van die Cochrane evalueringsinstrument om die risiko van onewewigtigheid uit te skakel. Twee ewekansige kliniese proewe en een intervensie kohort studie (n = 2112 babas) wat eksklusiewe borsvoeding vergelyk met 'n eksklusiewe formule-voeding is ingesluit. MIVinfeksie wat verband hou met 'n eksklusiewe borsvoeding is vergelyk met eksklusiewe formule-voeding (risiko verhouding van 1.67, 95% CI 1.26 tot 2,23, p=0.0005). Eksklusiewe formule-voeding hou verband met 'n hoë mortaliteit van infeksies met ’n risiko verhouding van 0.67, 95% CI 0.43 tot 0.83, p = 0.52, Chi ² = 1.30, p = 0.52, I ² = 0%. Daar is geen statisties beduidende verskille in MIV-vrye oorlewing tussen eksklusiewe borsvoeding en eksklusiewe formule-voeding nie wat deur die proefnemers gemeet is op 9, 18 en 24 maande (risiko verhouding 1.19, 95% CI, 0.92 tot 1.54, p = 0,19, Chi ² = 3,15, p = 0.21, I ² = 36% 3 studies, 1012 babas). Nie een van die ingeslote studies het verslag gedoen oor gemengde voeding nie. Algehele vermyding van borsvoeding is effektief in die voorkoming van Moeder na Kind oordrag van MIV. MIV-infeksie gedurende borsvoeding mag ’n aanduiding van gemengde voeding en swak nakoming wees. Formule voeding is alleenlik van toepassing in situasies waar formule-melk toeganklik, uitvoerbaar, veilig en volhoubaar is, want formule-voeding dra ’n hoë risiko van mortaliteit weens ander oorsake buiten MIV. Indien daar nie aan hierdie kriteria voldoen kan word nie, behoort moeders aangemoedig te word om eksklusief te borsvoed en seker te maak dat hulle babas die antiretrovirale profilaksie getrou neem, want dit verlaag die koers van vertikale MIV-1 oordrag. af_ZA
dc.format.extent 114 p. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject Breastfeeding en_ZA
dc.subject HIV-1 -- Prevention en_ZA
dc.subject HIV transmission from mother to child en_ZA
dc.subject HIV infections -- Transmission en_ZA
dc.subject AIDS (Disease) -- Transmission en_ZA
dc.subject AIDS (Disease) in infants en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Nursing en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Nursing en_ZA
dc.title Exclusive breastfeeding in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child : a systematic review en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University en_ZA


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