Studies on embryonic development and hatchability of ostrich eggs

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dc.contributor.advisor Cloete, S. W. P. en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Malecki, I. A en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Brown, C. R. en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Brand, Zanell en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Animal Sciences. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-15T12:57:52Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-30T11:02:57Z
dc.date.available 2012-03-15T12:57:52Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2012-03-30T11:02:57Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20314
dc.description Thesis (PhD(Agric))--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The ostrich industry experiences high rates of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Studies have been carried out to investigate factors influencing hatchability, as well as determining genotypic effects for commercial production. Eggs from the combination of South African Black (SAB) male ostriches crossed with Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) female ostriches had embryonic losses of 45.7%. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by pure bred SAB or ZB breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at around 33 - 34%, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by ZB males and SAB female crosses (27%). Female age had a significant effect on the proportion of chicks pipped, as well as on early and late the embryonic mortalities. Chicks from eggs stored for intermediate periods, i.e. 3, 4 and 6 days prior to being set, were more likely to pip than chicks from those eggs set directly after collection without storage. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0%) or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5%). Chicks that pipped in the correct position had a higher probability of successfully hatching than those pipping in the incorrect position. Transfer of eggs between setters (i.e. disturbance of eggs) during incubation reduced the number of ostrich chicks pipping in the correct position. Incubated ostrich eggs with intermediate levels of water loss, i.e. between 9.0 and 19% of fresh egg weight, were more likely to pip in the correct position than those with higher or lower levels of water loss. Such eggs were also less likely to sustain early, late or overall embryonic mortalities. To optimise hatching success it is important to understand embryonic development. After 2 days of incubation the blastoderm area in eggs from the SAB x ZB crosses (104.5 mm) was lower (P < 0.05) compared to the pure SAB (141.0 mm), pure ZB (161.7 mm) and ZB x SAB crosses (166.1 mm). For embryos incubated for 7 to 42 days, both embryonic and leg growth during the 42 days of incubation was similar and approximately linear, more or less doubling in size up to 35 days of incubation. The embryo eye size increased more rapidly than beak length and reached full size of approximately 16.2 mm by 28 days of incubation, whereas the beak length continued to increase until the chick hatched at 42 days. Incubation position, vertical or horizontal, did not affect any of the measurements of the developing embryo throughout the 42-day incubation period. Air cell volume at 29 day of incubation for infertile eggs (19.3%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher when compared to dead-in-shell eggs (14.3%) and eggs that hatched successfully (13.8%). Air cell volume was largely independent of strain (SAB or ZB) and whether chicks were assisted to hatch or not. After 41 days of incubation there was a significantly greater (P < 0.05) air cell volume in eggs that hatched normally compared to dead-in-shell eggs (28.3% vs. 21.7%, respectively, suggesting that insufficient water loss contributed to reduced survival. This study provides an insight into the complexity of embryo development and all the factors playing a role in successful hatching of ostrich eggs. Data from a pair-mated ostrich flock were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 (WL35) days of incubation, and pipping time (PT). Single-trait estimates of heritability (h2) were high and significant (P < 0.05) at 0.46 for EWT, 0.34 for CWT, 0.34 for WL21, 0.27 for WL35 and 0.16 for pipping time. Genetic correlations with EWT amounted to -0.21 for WL21 and to -0.12 for WL35. Corresponding correlations of CWT with WL were highly significant (P < 0.05) at -0.43 and -0.54. Physical characteristics of the eggshell were found to affect water loss and hatchability. Estimates of genetic parameters of 14 146 ostrich eggs for eggshell traits showed that heritability was 0.42 for pore count (PC), 0.33 for shell thickness (ST) and 0.22 for permeability (PERM). PC was negatively correlated with average pore diameter (-0.58) and ST (-0.23), while PC was positively correlated with total pore area (0.58), WL21 (0.24) and WL35 (0.34). The correlations of PC with total pore area and PERM were high and significant. ST was negatively correlated to WL21 and WL35. Additive genetic parameters strongly indicate that it should be possible to alter evaporative water loss and eggshell quality of ostrich eggs through genetic selection. When assessed as a trait of the individual egg or chick, embryonic mortalities exhibited moderate levels of genetic variation both on the normal scale (h2 = 0.16 - 0.22) and the underlying liability scale (h2 = 0.21 - 0.31). Early embryonic survival and late embryonic survival was governed mostly by the same genes (rg = 0.78). Late embryonic survival was genetically correlated to WL35, at -0.22. It was concluded that embryonic survival could be improved by using husbandry measures, a knowledge of the stage when incubation mortalities occur, and by genetic selection, using an integrated approach. Findings from this study will help to understand the mechanisms involved in hatching from artificial incubation better to improve hatchability and also implement selective breeding programs. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die volstruisbedryf ondervind tans ‘n baie hoë voorkoms van embrionale mortaliteite tydens die kunsmatige uitbroei van eiers. Studies is uitgevoer om die faktore wat uitbroeibaarheid beinvloed te ondersoek en om genotipiese effekte te bepaal vir kommersiële produsente. Eiers van die kombinasie van Suid-Afrikaanse swart (SAB) mannetjie volstruise, met Zimbabwean blou (ZB) wyfies, het embrionale mortaliteite van 45.7% gehad. Embrionale mortaliteite van eiers gelê deur suiwer SAB of ZB volstruise was dieselfde op omtrent 33 - 34%, maar embrionale mortaliteite was laer vir eiers geproduseer deur SAB wyfies wat gekruis was met ZB mannetjies (27%). Wyfie ouderdom het ‘n betekenisvolle effek gehad op die proporsie van kuikens wat gepik het, asook die aantal vroeë- en laat embrionale mortaliteite. Kuikens vanuit eiers wat vir die periode 3, 4 dae en 6 dae voor pak in die broeikaste gestoor is, was meer geneig om te pik as kuikens vanaf eiers wat direk na kolleksie gepak is. Embrionale mortalitiete het verhoog vir eiers wat direk na kolleksie gepak was (32.0%) of vir eiers wat langer as 6 dae gestoor was (43.5%). Kuikens wat in die korrekte posisie pik het ‘n hoër kans op uitbroei gehad as kuikens wat in die verkeerde posisie gepik het. Die skuif van eiers tussen verskillende broeikaste (of enige steurnisse) gedurende die broeiproses het ‘n verlaging in die aantal kuikens wat in die korrekte posisie pik, gehad. Volstruiseiers met ‘n gemiddelde vogverlies van tussen 9.0 en 19% van die vars eier massa, was meer geneig om in die korrekte posisie te pik as eiers met laer of hoër vlakke van vogverlies. Sulke eiers was ook minder geneig tot vroeë, laat en totale embrionale mortaliteite. Vir optimale uitbroeisukses is dit belangrik om die ontwikkeling van die embrio te verstaan. Na 2 dae van broei was die blastoderm area in eiers van SAB x ZB kruisings (104.5 mm) kleiner (P < 0.05) as die blastoderm area van suiwer SAB (141.0 mm), suiwer ZB (161.7 mm) en ZB x SAB kruise (166.1 mm). Beide embrionale- en beengroei tydens die 42 dae broeiproses was dieselfde en nagenoeg lineêr, met ‘n verdubbeling in grootte tot en met 35 dae broei. Die embrio se oog vergroot vinniger as wat die snawel verleng en bereik reeds volle grootte van ongeveer 16.2 mm op 28 dae van broei, terwyl die snawel aanhou groei tot uitbroei van die kuiken op 42 dae. Nie die vertikale of horisontale broeiposisie het enige invloed op die metings van die ontwikkelende embrio tot op 42 dae gehad nie. Lugsakvolume vir geil eiers (19.3%) op 29 dae van broei was groter (P < 0.05) as beide die lugsakke van eiers wat dood-in-dop (14.3%) en eiers wat suksesvol uitgebroei het (13.8%). Die lugsakvolume was onafhanklik van beide genotype en of die kuiken met of sonder hulp uitgebroei het. Na 41 dae broei was lugsakvolume groter (P < 0.05) vir eiers wat uitgebroei het teenoor eiers wat dood-in-dop was (28.3% vs. 21.7%, onderskeidelik), wat impliseer dat onvoldoende vogverlies moontlik kan bydrae tot ‘n verlaging in embrionale oorlewing. Hierdie studie gee ‘n insig in die kompleksiteit van embrionale ontwikkeling en al die faktore wat ‘n rol speel in die suksesvolle uitbroei van volstruiseiers. Tydens die bepaling van genetiese parameters vir spesifieke uitbroei-eienskappe in volstruise, is data gebruik afkomend van ‘n teelkudde in ‘n enkelparing stelsel om genetiese waardes vir eiermassa (EWT), dagoud kuikenmassa (CWT), vogverlies tot 21 dae broei (WL21), vogverlies tot 35 dae broei (WL35) en piktyd (PT) gebruik. Enkeleienskap-beraming vir oorerflikheid (h2) was hoog en betekenisvol teen 0.46 vir EWT, 0.34 vir CWT, 0.34 vir WL21, 0.27 vir WL35 en 0.16 vir piktyd. Genetiese korrelasies met EWT was -0.21 vir WL21 en -0.12 vir WL35. Ooreenkomstig was korrelasies van CWT met WL21 en WL35 hoog (P < 0.05) met -0.43 en -0.54 onderskeidelik. Fisiese eienskappe van die eiers het beide vogverlies en uitbroeibaarheid beinvloed. Beramings van genetiese parameters vir 14 146 volstruiseiers se dopeienskappe het gewys dat oorerflikehid 0.42 was vir die aantal porieë (PC), 0.33 vir dopdikte (ST) en 0.22 vir deurlaatbaarheid (PERM). PC was negatief gekorreleerd met gemiddelde porieë deursnee (-0.58) en ST (-0.23), terwyl PC positief gekorreleerd was met totale porieë area (0.58), WL21 (0.24) en WL35 (0.34). Die korrelasie van PC met totale porieë area en deurlaatbaarheid was hoog en betekenisvol. ST was negatief gekorreleerd met WL21 en WL35. Additiewe genetiese parameters het sterk daarop gedui dat dit moontlik sou wees om vogverlies en eierkwaliteit (bv. dopkwaliteit en poreusiteit) van volstruiseiers te verander deur genetiese seleksie. Indien embrionale mortaliteit geevalueer word as ‘n kenmerk van die eier of kuiken, toon dit matige vlakke van genetiese variasie op beide die normale (h2 = 0.16 - 0.22) en die onderliggende skale (h2 = 0.21 - 0.31). Beide vroeë- en laat embrionale oorlewing word deur dieselfde stel gene beheer (rg = 0.78). Laat embrionale oorlewing was geneties gekorreleerd met WL35 teen -0.22. Die gevolgtrekking was dat embrionale oorlewing verbeter kan word deur verbeterde broeikamerpraktyke, kennis van op watter stadium van ontwikkelings embrionale mortaliteite plaasvind en deur genetiese seleksie. Bevindinge vanuit hierdie studies sal help om die meganismes betrokke by die kunsmatige uitbroei van volstruiskuikens beter te verstaan om sodoende uitbroeibaarheid te verbeter en ook suksesvolle seleksie programme te implementeer. af_ZA
dc.format.extent 202 p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject Ostriches -- Reproduction en_ZA
dc.subject Ostrich eggs -- Hatchability en_ZA
dc.subject Embryonic development en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Animal sciences en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Animal sciences en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Agriculture en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Agriculture en_ZA
dc.title Studies on embryonic development and hatchability of ostrich eggs en_ZA
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University


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