Basinfill of The Permian Tanqua depocentre, SW Karoo basin, South Africa

Alao, Abosede Olubukunola (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Basin subsidence analysis, employing the backstripping method, indicates that fundamentally two different basin-generating mechanisms controlled Tanqua depocentre development in SW Karoo Basin. The subsidence curves display initial dominantly decelerating subsidence, suggesting an extensional and thermal control possibly in a strikeslip setting during the depocentre formation; on the other hand, subsequent accelerating subsidence with time suggests that the dominant control on the depocentre formation in SW Karoo was flexure of the lithosphere. Based on these observations on the subsidence curves, it is possible to infer that the first stage of positive inflexion (~ 290 Ma) is therefore recognised as the first stage of Tanqua depocentre formation. Petrographic study show that most of the studied sandstones of the Tanqua depocentre at depth of ~ 7.5 Km were subjected to high pressure due to the overlying sediments. They are tightly-packed as a result of grains adjustment made under such pressure which led also to the development of sutured contacts. It is clear the high compaction i.e. grain deformation and pressure solution occurred on the sediments; leading to total intergranular porosity reduction of the quartz-rich sediments and dissolution of the mineral grains at intergranular contacts under non-hydrostatic stress and subsequent re-precipitation in pore spaces. Furthermore, siliciclastic cover in the Tanqua depocentre expanded from minimal values in the early Triassic (Early to Late Anisian) and to a maximum in the middle Permian (Wordian -Roadian); thereby accompanying a global falling trend in eustatic sea-level and favoured by a compressional phase involving a regional shortening due to orogenic thrusting and positive inflexions (denoting foreland basin formation). The estimate of sediment volume obtained in this study for the Permian Period to a maximum in the middle Permian is therefore consistent with published eustatic sea-level and stress regime data. In addition, this new data are consistent with a diachronous cessation of marine incursion and closure of Tanqua depocentre, related to a compressional stress regime in Gondwana interior during the late Palaeozoic.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ontleding van komversakking met behulp van die terugstropingsmetode bring aan die lig dat die ontwikkeling van die Tankwa-afsettingsentrum in die Suidwes-Karoo-kom hoofsaaklik deur twee verskillende komvormende meganismes bepaal is. Die versakkingskurwes toon aanvanklike, hoofsaaklik verlangsaamde versakking, wat daarop dui dat ekstensie- en termiese beheer gedurende die vorming van die afsettingsentrum plaasgevind het, waarskynlik in strekkingwaartse opset. Aan die ander kant toon daaropvolgende versnellende versakking wat mettertyd plaasgevind het dat die vorming van die afsettingsentrum in die Suidwes-Karoo eerder oorwegend deur kromming van die litosfeer beheer is. Op grond van hierdie waarnemings met betrekking tot die versakkingskurwes, kan mens aflei dat die eerste stadium van positiewe infleksie (~ 290 Ma) dus as die eerste stadium van die vorming van die Tankwa-afsettingsentrum beskou kan word. Petrografiese studie toon dat die meeste van die sandsteen wat van die Tankwaafsettingsentrum bestudeer is, op diepte van ~ 7,5 Km aan hoë druk onderwerp was weens die oorliggende sedimente. Die sandsteen is dig opmekaar as gevolg van die korrelaanpassing wat onder sulke hoë druk plaasvind, wat op sy beurt ook tot die ontwikkeling van kartelnaatkontakte aanleiding gegee het. Dit is duidelik dat die sediment aan hoë verdigting, dit wil sê korrelvervorming en drukoplossing, onderwerp was, wat gelei het tot algehele afname in interkorrelporeusheid by die kwartsryke sedimente; die ontbinding van die mineraalkorrels in interkorrelkontaksones onder niehidrostatiese spanning, en daaropvolgende herpresipitasie in poreuse ruimtes. Voorts het silisiklastiese dekking in die Tankwa-afsettingsentrum toegeneem van minimale waardes in die vroeë Triassiese tydperk (vroeë tot laat Anisiaanse tydperk) tot hoogtepunt in die mid-Permiaanse tydperk (Wordiaans–Roadiaans). Dié ontwikkeling het gepaardgegaan met algemene dalingstendens in die eustatiese seevlak, en is verder aangehelp deur saamdrukkingsfase wat gekenmerk is deur regionale verkorting weens orogeniese druk en positiewe infleksies (wat met voorlandkomvorming saamhang). Die geraamde sedimentvolume wat in hierdie studie vir die Permiaanse tydperk bepaal is, met die hoogtepunt in die middel van dié tydperk, is dus in pas met gepubliseerde data oor die eustatiese seevlak en spanningstoestand. Daarbenewens strook hierdie nuwe data met diachroniese staking van mariene instroming en die afsluiting van die Tankwaafsettingsentrum wat met spanningstoestand in die Gondwana-binneland gedurende die laat Paleosoïkum verband hou.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20277
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