Petrology, geochronology and provenance of the Laingsburg and Tanqua Karoo submarine fan systems, Ecca Group, South Africa
Thesis (MSc (Earth Sciences))—University of Stellenbosch, 2005.
The integration of whole-rock chemistry, heavy mineral chemistry, detrital zircon morphology and age dating has enabled high-resolution characterization of the Permian Laingsburg and Tanqua submarine fan provenance in the Karoo Basin, upper Ecca Group, South Africa. Geochemically, the Laingsburg and Tanqua sandstones are classified as greywacke and litharenite. The chemical index of alteration values for these sandstones suggest low to moderately weathered sources and a relatively cold climate. Abundant angular clastic grains and lithic fragments as well as the predominance of pristine zircons indicate a near provenance and a first cycle derivation. The investigated sandstones originated from a continental island arc and an active continental margin. The source is dominantly intermediate to felsic and includes tonalites, granodiorites, and adamellites or their volcanic equivalents.